Oct 17, 2012

Philosophical Ground of Human Resources Development: Its implication to Educational Change




By Marsigit
Yogyakarta State University

a.Human Resources Development

According to Swanson, R.A. and Holton III, E.F. (2009) the philosophical ground of human resources development covers:


(1) a shift to the human resources school of thought,
(2) the growth of laboratory training,
(3) the use of survey research and feedback,
(4) an increased use of action research (problem-solving) techniques,
(5) an acknowledgment of socio-technical systems and quality of work life, and
(6) a new emphasis on strategic change.

Further, they suggested that devel¬oped mostly in response to serious concerns about the viability of traditional and bureaucratic organizations, the human relations model attempted to move away from these classical assumptions and focused more heavily on individual iden¬tities, their needs, and how to facilitate stronger interpersonal communication and relationships.

Accordingly, much of the concepts of human resources development are currently focusing on the increase of the effective¬ness of strategic change. The use of open-systems planning was one of the first applications of strategic change methods. An educational institutions’ demand and response systems could be described and analyzed, the gaps reduced, and performance improved.

In the case of education, this work represents a shift in teachers’ professional development away from a sole focus on the individual, and the supporting assumption that it is completely mediated through individuals, to a more holistic and open sys¬tems view of educational institution. This shift continues to this day and is evidenced in key revelations stemming from strategic change work including the importance of educational leadership support, multilevel involvement, and the criticality of alignment between organizational strategy, structure, culture, and systems (ibid)

b.Managing Educational Change
Fullan (1982, 1991) proposed that there are four broad phases in the educational change process: initiation, implementation, continuation, and outcome.
1)Initiation
The factors that affecting the initiation phases include: existence and quality of innovations, access to innovations, advocacy from central administration , teacher advocacy, and external change agents

2)Implementation
Three areas of the major factors affecting implementation: characteristics of change, local characteristics and external factors (government and other agencies). They identified different stakeholders in local, and federal and governmental levels. They also identified characterizations of change to each stakeholder and the issues that each stakeholder should consider before committing a change effort or rejecting it.

3)Characteristics of Change
Fullan (1999) characterized educational changes and their factors at different levels as follows:
Characteristics of Change
•Need of change
•Clarity about goals and needs
•Complexity: the extent of change required to those responsible for implementation
•Quality and practicality of the program
Local factor
•The school district
•Board of community
•Principal
•Teacher
External factor
•Government and other agencies
4)Continuation/ Sustainability

According to Fullan (1999), continuation is a decision about institutionalization of an innovation based on the reaction to the change, which may be negative or positive. Continuation depends on whether or not:
a)The change gets embedded/built into the structure (through policy/budget/timetable)
b)The change has generated a critical mass of administrators or teachers who are skilled and committed to change.
c)The change has established procedures for continuing assistance

Fullan (1999) pointed out the importance of the recognition that the educational change process is complex. To deal with such complexity is not to control the change, but to guide it. He provides eight new lessons about guiding educational change:
a)Moral purpose is complex and problematic
b)Theories of education and theories of change need each other
c)Conflict and diversity are our friends
d)Understanding the meaning of operating on the edge of chaos
e)Emotional intelligence is anxiety provoking and anxiety containing
f)Collaborative cultures are anxiety provoking and anxiety containing
g)Attack incoherence connectedness and knowledge creation are critical
h)There is no single solution. Craft your own theories and actions by being a critical consumer.

References:

Fullan, M., 2002, Leading and Learning for the 21stC Vol 1 No. 3 - January 2002Furlong, J., 2002, Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England:
Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries. Retrieved

Swanson, R.A. and Holton III, E.F., 2009, Foundation of Human Resources Development
: Second Edition, Berrett-Kohler Publisher Inc.

3 comments:

  1. Ahmad Bahauddin
    16709251058
    PPs P.Mat C 2016

    Assalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.
    Saat ini dunia global memiliki standar sendiri dalam menentukan kualitas sumber daya manusia (SDM). Hal ini tentu tidak luput dari peran institusi pendidikan dalam mendidik generasi ke generasi agar dapat menjadi penerus bangsa. Tidak hanya dunia pendidikan, SDM yang berkualitas juga dapat di ciptakan di dalam dunia industri melalui peran Human Resource Development (HRD). Sekarang ini peran HRD tidak lagi hanya membangun sistem untuk kesejahteraan perusahaan tetapi juga untuk kesejahteraan Indonesia dengan mengembangkan SDM yang ada menjadi seorang yang professional di bidangnya.

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  2. Nama: Hendrawansyah
    NIM: 17701251030
    S2 PEP 2017 Kelas B

    Assalamualaikum wr wb

    Sebelumnya maaf Pak Prok, karena minimnya pengetahuan saya dalam menterjemahkan bahasa inggris.Saya mecoba meminta bantuan google translate untuk menerjemahkannya ketika ada kata yang menurut saya sulit.Dan setelah membaca postingan ini , saya menangkap bahwa dalam mengembangkan hubungan dan membangun sumber daya manusia maka pilar utamanya adalah pendidikan.Dengan hadirnya pendidikan manusia dapat meninjau masa depan hidupnya seperti apa.Dunia bersamaan lambat launnya waktu makin berkembang pesat pula.Maka lewat pendidikan manusia dapat berkembang baik dari segi ilmunya, kehidupannya dan lingkungannya.
    Saya sedikit ingin mencurahkan pengalaman ibu saya dulu yang sempat diceritakannya kepada saya ketika beliau hendak ingin menjelajahi dunia pendidikan.Di zamannya dulu, tuturnya susah untuk sekolah mungkin karena keadaan pendidikannya tidak berkembang pesat seperti saat sekarang ini meskipun di lain hal faktor ekonomi yang kurang mendukung.Apalagi kalau dilihat orang-orang mulai berlomba-lomba untuk sekolah.Ini menandakan bahwa pendidikan merupakan sarana untuk membangun sumber daya manusia.

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  3. Wisniarti
    17709251037
    PM B Pascasarjana

    Sumber Daya Manusia perkembangannya dilandasi oleh pendidikan. Pendidikan dapat meningkatkan kualitas manusia hingga memiliki kualitas yang lebih tinggi. Pendidikan yang baik maka akan menghasilkan manusia yang baik pula. Perubahan pendidikan yang dilakukan setiap tahunnya didasarkan karena kebutuhan Sumber Daya Manusia yang lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Dari tulisan diatas perubahan pendidikan tidak asal berubah saja akan tetapi ada aturannya. Perubahan pendidikan dapat dilakukan dalam berbagai aspek, baik dari segi sarana prasarana, sistem pendidikan, fasilitator, guru dan pemerintah yang berfokus pada pendidikan. Secara Idealnya perubahan pendidikan itu harus diseimbangkan dengan perubahan dari aspek yang berhubungan dengan pendidikan itu sendiri.

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