Oct 10, 2012

Elegi Menggapai "The Metaphysic of Science"




To be reviewed from many sources by Marsigit
Steven Kreis , 2001 in his Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History elaborated Giambattista Vico position in his “The New Science (1725)” some notions of the ontology and or metaphysic of science.


Accordingly, Vico, G (1725) stated that Science or metaphysic, studying the common nature of nations in the light of divine providence, discovers the origins of divine and human institutions among the gentile nations, and thereby establishes a system of he natural law of the gentes, which proceeds with the greatest equality and constancy through the three ages which the Egyptians handed down to us as the three periods through which the world has passed up to their time; these are (1) The age of the gods, in which the gentiles believed they lived under divine governments, and everything was commanded them by auspices and oracles, which are the oldest institutions in profane history. (2) The age of the heroes, in which they reigned everywhere in aristocratic commonwealths, on account of a certain superiority of nature which they held themselves to have over the plebs. (3) The age of men, in which all men recognized themselves as equal in human nature, and therefore there were established first the popular commonwealths and then the monarchies, both of which are forms of human government.
Next, Vico (1725), as cited by Kreis (2001) indicated that peoples who have reached the point of premeditated malice, when they receive this last remedy of providence and are thereby stunned and brutalized, are sensible no longer of comforts, delicacies, pleasures, and pomp, but only of the sheer necessities of life. And the few survivors in the midst of an abundance of the things necessary for life naturally become sociable and, returning to the primitive simplicity of the first world of peoples, are again religious, truthful, and faithful; thus providence brings back among them the piety, faith, and truth which are the natural foundations of justice as well as the graces and beauties of the eternal order of God.
Meanwhile, Thales (1999) in SAINTS argued that there is no reason why modern religion shouldn't incorporate the latest discoveries of Psychical Research or Metaphysics; from the time of Aristotle (300 BCE) to the time of Galileo (1600 CE), nearly 2000 years, the worldview, the background of all thought, was that of Aristotle and Ptolemy. It made a large distinction between the heavens (i.e. stars, the moon, the sun, and the planets) and earth. Earth was made of four elements, earth, air, fire, and water, and was mutable and perishable. The heavenly bodies were made of a fifth element (quintessence) which was immutable, imperishable and eternal. Thus, the correct translation of this metaphor is "realm of the imperishable," or "realm of the quintessence."
Thales said that it is not unusual for religions to begin with the mystical teachings of the founder to a small circle of disciples; as the religion develops it is not unusual for it to absorb elements from other religions over the centuries (syncretism) and to incorporate fantastic fairy tales, which may incorporate some symbolic truth (mythology). According to him, the religions who gave up worldly concerns and went off into the desert as seekers of the illumination of fire often succeeded, and when they returned to the world (or when the world came to them), they were not only holy and wise, but they also had "miraculous" powers, such as healing, or walking on water. The miracles of one age are the science of the next. The age of faith passes, and the age of spiritual science begins.
Bryan Appleyard, 1992, in “Understanding the Present: Science and the Soul of Modern Man” clarified that Western science is not simply a neutral method of acquiring knowledge but that it is ‘a metaphysic like any other.’; the foundations of this metaphysic were laid by Galileo, for his discovery was that one of the most effective ways of understanding the world ‘is to pretend that we do not exist.’ He, further indicated that it is the history of science in which he traces the development of physics from Plato and Aristotle through Thomas Aquinas to Galileo, Descartes and Newton and their modern descendants; modern science gradually emerges not as the embodiment of reason but as a form of worldly mysticism whose zeal for accumulating knowledge about the inanimate and the non-human, and whose ‘rational’ commitment to technological power and material wealth has almost completely obscured its radical anti-humanism.
However, Appleyard, B., (1992), pointed out that the contradictions between science and religion are absolutely and irresolvable conflict; he, then stated that the most obvious problem here is that Islam developed directly out of the Judaeo-Christian tradition and shares much of its world-view with Judaism – whose prophets Muslims revere. On the other hand, according to him, at the same time modern science was the almost exclusive creation of zealous Christians who were seeking not to escape their faith but to confirm and magnify it. Descartes, Newton and Robert Boyle, to name but three representative figures, all believed they had triumphantly succeeded through their science in bearing witness to the majesty and rationality of God.
Appleyard, B., (1992), explained that one reaction to the failure to escape is for us all to throw up our hands and loudly proclaim our belief in the reality and complexity of the human soul in the hope that by doing so we can triumph over science; while, the other reaction is to think more carefully, more sensitively and more systematically about the very aspects of human reality which science has traditionally neglected. He, then concluded that only if we do this is it possible that our intellectual culture may yet triumph over its own history, and over the spiritual extremism which shaped modern rationalism and bequeathed to us a contempt for the ‘human element’ whose religious origins we too readily forget.
REFERENCE
Appleyard, B., 1992, “Understanding The Present: Science And The Soul Of Modern Man”: Picador
Giambattista Vico in Kreis, S., 2001, “The New Science: Lectures On Modern European Intellectual History”, The History Guide
Iranzo, V., 1995, “ Epistemic Values In Science” : Sorites
Katz, M, 2004, “Value Science Can Change The World (And Be Changed By It)” : Cristina Lafont
Meer, J.M.V.D., 1995, “The Struggle Between Christian Theism,
Metaphysical Naturalism And Relativism: How To Proceed In Science?”, Ontarion: Pascal Centre, Redeemer College
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.,
Wilson, F.L., 1999, “Plato, Science And Human Values”, Rochester Institute Of Technology: Physics Teacher.Org

7 comments:

  1. Tri Wulaningrum
    17701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Metafisika sains. Berawal dari metafisika, di mana tugas kita ialah melihat seseuatu di sebalik yang terlihat. Oleh karena itu, menggapai metafisika sains ialah melihat unsur-unsur yang "tidak terlihat" secara gamblang pada sains itu sendiri. Pada artikel di atas terdapat satu pernyataan menarik, yaiitu bahwa jika kita ingin mempelajari sains, metode paling efektif ialah berpura-pura bahwa kita tidak ada. Maka, salah satu refleksinya bagi saya ialah timbulnya pertanyaan bagi saya sendiri, apakah ketika kita akan menggapai metafisika sains kita pun harus menggapai metafisika diri kita sendiri?

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  2. Muh Wildanul Firdaus
    17709251047
    Pendidikan matematika S2 kls C

    Metafisika adalah cabang filsafat yang bersangkutan dengan menjelaskan sifat dasar keberadaan dan dunia, walaupun istilahnya tidak mudah didefinisikan. Secara tradisional, metafisika mencoba menjawab dua pertanyaan dasar dalam istilah seluas mungkin:
    "Ada apa?"
    "Seperti apa itu?"
    Metafisika sebagai disiplin adalah bagian sentral penyelidikan akademis dan pendidikan ilmiah bahkan sebelum zaman Aristoteles, yang menganggapnya sebagai "Ratu Ilmu Pengetahuan." Isu-isu yang dianggap tak kalah pentingnya dibanding subyek formal utama lainnya yaitu ilmu fisika, kedokteran, matematika, puisi dan musik. Masalah yang pada awalnya tidak dianggap sebagai batas metafisika telah ditambahkan ke dalam lingkupnya, sementara masalah lain yang dianggap metafisik selama berabad-abad sekarang biasanya merupakan subyek dari wilayah mereka sendiri yang terpisah dalam filsafat, seperti filsafat agama, filsafat pikiran, filsafat persepsi, filsafat bahasa, dan filsafat sains.

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  3. Nama: Dian Andarwati
    NIM: 17709251063
    Kelas: Pendidikan Matematika (S2) Kelas C

    Assalamu’alaikum. Hubungan metafisika dan pengetahuan terdapat pada fundamental ontologisnya. Sumbangan metafisika pada ilmu pengetahuan adalah persinggungan antara metafisika dan/atau ontologi dengan epistemologi. Berbagai perdebatan dalam metafisika mengenai realitas, ada-tiada, dan lainnya sebagaimana telah dikemukakan di depan yang telah melahirkan berbagai pandangan yang berbeda satu sama lain secara otomatis juga melahirkan berbagai aliran pemahaman yang lazim dinyatakan sebagai aliran-aliran filsafat awal. Ketika pemahaman aliran-aliran filsafat tersebut dipertemukan dengan ranah epistemologis atau dihadapkan pada fenomena dinamika perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan akan menghasilkan percabangan disiplin ilmu baru.

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  5. Dewi Thufaila
    17709251054
    Pendidikan Matematika Pascasarjana C 2017

    Assalamualaikum.wr.wb

    Steven Kreis, 2001 di Kuliah nya di Eropa Modern Intelektual Sejarah menguraikan posisi Giambattista Vico dalam bukunya "The New Science (1725)" beberapa gagasan dari ontologi dan metafisika atau ilmu pengetahuan.Dengan demikian, Vico, G (1725) menyatakan bahwa Ilmu atau metafisika, mempelajari sifat umum dari negara-negara dalam terang ilahi, menemukan asal-usul lembaga ilahi dan manusia antara bangsa-bangsa bukan Yahudi, dan dengan demikian menetapkan sistem ia hukum alam gentes, yang berlangsung dengan kesetaraan terbesar dan keteguhan melalui tiga usia yang orang Mesir diturunkan kepada kita sebagai tiga periode di mana dunia telah berlalu hingga waktu mereka

    Wassalamualaikum.wr.wb

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  6. Ulivia Isnawati Kusuma
    17709251015
    PPs Pend Mat A 2017
    Metafisik merupakan bagian filsafat yang mempelajari penjelasan atau hakekat suatu objek fisik di dunia. Manfaat metafisik bagi perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan bahwa ketika kumpulam kepercayaan belum lengkap faktanya, maka harus ada ilmu pengetahuan lain, peristiwa sejarah, pengalaman individu, metafisika. Jadi metafisika itu mempelajari bagian terdalam yang menyusun suatu unsur kehidupan. Kemudian dari perkembangan itu setiap aspek tersebut kemudian membentuk cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang baru.

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  7. Isoka Amanah Kurnia
    17709251051
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika 2017 Kelas C

    The existence behind or after the physical (metaphysical) in the philosophical perspective needs to be studied. Metaphysics is one branch of Philosophy that studies and understands the causes of things so that certain things come into being. Actually the discipline of metaphysical philosophy has begun since the time of the Greek kuo. Starting from the philosophers of nature to Aristotle. Science also includes abstract things, not just the real thing. The metaphysics of science studies man, but the object of his thinking is not the man with all its aspects, including the experience that is perceived by the senses.

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