Oct 10, 2012

Elegi Menggapai "Kant’s System of all Principles of Pure Understanding"




By Marsigit

Propositions, according to Kant, 1787, can also be divided into two other types: empirical and a priori; empirical propositions depend entirely on sense perception, but a priori propositions have a fundamental validity and are not based on such perception.



Kant's claims that it is possible to make synthetic a priori judgments and regards that the objects of the material world is fundamentally unknowable; therefore, from the point of view of reason, they serve merely as the raw material from which sensations are formed.

Kant maintains that the category has no other application in knowledge than to objects of experience.

To think an object and to know an object are different things.

Accordingly, knowledge involves two factors: the concept and the intuition.

For the only intuition possible to us is sensible, the thought of an object can become knowledge only in so far as the concept is related to objects of the senses.

This determines the limits of the pure concepts of understanding.

Kant insists that since there lies in us a certain form of a priori sensible intuition, the understanding, as spontaneity, is able to determine inner sense through the manifold of given representations in accordance with the synthetic unity of apperception.

In this way the categories obtain objective validity.

Further Kant insists that figurative synthesis is the synthesis of the manifold which is possible and necessary a priori.

It opposes to combination through the understanding which is thought in the mere category in respect to intuition in general.

It may be called the transcendental synthesis of imagination that is the faculty of representing in intuition of an object which is not present; and of course it belongs to sensibility.

For the principle that all intuition are extensive, as it was elaborated in the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant, 1787, proves that all appearances are extensive magnitudes and consciousness of the synthetic unity of the manifold is the concept of magnitude.

A magnitude is extensive when the representation of the parts makes possible and therefore necessarily precedes the representation of the whole.

In appearances, the real i.e. an object of sensation, has intensive magnitude or a degree.

Kant proves that perception is empirical consciousness and appearances are not pure intuition like time and space.

They contain the real of sensation as subjective representation.

Therefore, from empirical consciousness to pure consciousness a graduated transition is possible.

There is also possible a synthesis in the process of generating the magnitude of a sensation as well as that the sensation is not itself an objective representation.

Since neither the intuition of space nor time has met with it, its magnitude in not extensive but intensive.

Kant proves that experience is possible only through the representation of a necessary connection of perceptions.

For experience is an empirical knowledge, it is a synthesis of perceptions; it is not contained in perception but containing itself in one consciousness of the synthetic unity of the manifold of perceptions.

And since time itself cannot be perceived, the determination of the existence of objects in time can take place only through their relation in time in general.

Since this determination always carry a necessity with time, experience is only possible through a representation of necessary connection of perceptions.

Kant ascertains that the three modes of time are duration, succession, and coexistence and the general principles of the three analogies rest on the necessary unity of apperception at every instant of time.

These general principles are not concerned with appearances but only with existence and relation in respect to existence.

Existence, therefore, can never be known as a priori and can not be constructed like mathematical principles so that these principles will be only regulative.

These analogies are valid for empirical employment of understanding but not for transcendental one.

In the principle, we use the category; but in its application to appearances, we use the schema.

References:

Kant, I., 1787, “The Critique of Pure Reason: Preface To The Second Edition”, Translated By J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Retrieved 2003
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid.
4 Ibid.
5 Ibid.
6 Ibid
7 Ibid.
8 Ibid
9 Ibid

6 comments:

  1. Kartika Pramudita
    17701251021
    PEP S2 B

    Menurut Kant, proporsisi itu digolongkan menjadi dua yaitu proporsisi empiris dan proporsisi a priori. Proporsisi empiris berhubungan dengan pengalaman yang diperoleh melalui inderawi sedangkan proporsisi a priori merupakan proposisi yang tidak didasarkan pada persepsi inderawi. Pengetahuan melibatkan dua hal yaitu konsep dan intuisi. Intuisi merupakan hal yang digunakan untuk memikirkan sesuatu secara masuk akal sedangkan konsep dapat menjadi pengetahuan hanya jika terkait dengan obyek indera. Intuisi sangat diperlukan dalam matematika. Dalam belajar matematika dimulai dengan intuisi.

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  2. Arung Mega Ratna
    17709251049
    PPs PMC 2017


    Proposisi, menurut Kant dibagi menjadi dua jenis yaitu empiris dan apriori. Proposisi empiris bergantung sepenuhnya pada persepsi akal, sedangkan proposisi apriori memiliki validitas yang mendasar dan tidak berdasarkan persepsi tersebut. Kant juga mengklaim bahwa mungkin untuk membuat sintetik penilaian apriori dan menganggap bahwa benda-benda dari dunia material dasarnya diketahui yang berarti pengetahuan melibatkan dua faktor yaitu konsep dan intuisi.

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  3. Tri Wulaningrum
    17701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Pada postingan di atas saya mendapatkan informasi jika pengetahuan melibatkan dua faktor, yaitu konsep dan intuisi. Hal itu berangkat dari asumsi bahwa pemikiran terhadap suatu benda atau objek kajian yang lain hanya jika konsep itu terakit dengan objek indera. Adanya kemampuan dalam pikiran kita untuk mengkaitkan beberapa konsep tentang suatu benda karena kita memiliki intuisi. Di sinilah peranan intuisi dan konsep bermain. Konsep tanpa intuisi hanyalah konsep kosong tidak bisa menjadu suatu pengetahuan, sedangkan ntuisi tanpa memikirkan konsep tidak akan mungkin terjadi, karena sejatinya apa yang kita pikirkan sudah terkonsep dan terkategori.

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  4. Nama: Dian Andarwati
    NIM: 17709251063
    Kelas: Pendidikan Matematika (S2) Kelas C

    Assalamu’alaikum. Kant berpendapat bahwa matematika dibangun di atas intuisi murni yaitu intuisi ruang dan waktu dimana konsep-konsep matematika dapat dikonstruksi secara sintetis. Intuisi murni tersebut merupakan landasan dari semua penalaran dan keputusan matematika. Jika tidak berlandaskan intuisi murni maka penalaran tersebut tidaklah mungkin. Menurut Kant, matematika sebagai ilmu adalah mungkin jika kita mampu menemukan intuisi murni.

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  5. Ulivia Isnawati Kusuma
    17709251015
    PPs Pend Mat A 2017

    Untuk mengetahui pemahaman, immanuel Kant membagi pengetahuan menjadi 2 bagian, a priori dan a posteriori. A priori adalah pengetahuan yang diperoleh dari pengembangan prinsip dasar untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang baru tanpa melakukan pengamatan terlebih dahulu. Sedangkan aposteriori adalah pengetahuan yang diperoleh dari proses pengamatan terlebih dahulu. Maka pemahaman yang sebenarnya adalah pemahaman yang apriori, karena untuk dapat menuju a priori tentu melewati aposteriori terlebih dahulu, karena sudah memahami, maka kemudian dapat mengembangkannya.

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  6. Isoka Amanah Kurnia
    17709251051
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika 2017 Kelas C

    Kant assumes that knowledge is always concerned with human experience and knowledge, so he says there are two factors of knowledge: concepts and intuition. it can only be outside regarding the experience he achieved. Even mathematical truths obtained under a priori can always be explained by empirical order. Nevertheless, experience must still be rationally tested in order to attain the truth of universal knowledge.

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