Oct 10, 2012

Elegi Menggapai "KANT’S ACCOUNT OF MORAL EXPERIENCE"




By Marsigit

In the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant proposed a Table of the Categories of Freedom in Relation to the Concepts of Good and Evil, using the familiar logical distinctions as the basis for a catalog of synthetic a priori judgments that have bearing on the evaluation of human action.



Kant used ordinary moral notions as the foundation for a derivation of this moral law in his Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kemerling 1997-2002).

Wallis (2004) elaborated that most of Kant's work on ethics is presented in two works, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) that is about Kant's search for and establishment of the supreme principle of morality; and in The Critique of Practical Reason (1787) in which Kant attempted to unify his account of practical reason with his work in the Critique of Pure Reason.

Kant viewed that the sole feature that gives an action moral worth is not the outcome that is achieved by the action, but the motive that is behind the action; the categorical imperative is Kant's famous statement of this duty, stated that an act only according to that maxim by which we can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.

Kemerling, 1997-2002, noted Kant’s claimed that the ultimate principle of morality must be a moral law conceived so abstractly that it is capable of guiding us to the right action in application to every possible set of circumstances; therefore, the only relevant feature of the moral law is its generality.

Kant insisted that only rational beings do so consciously, in obedience to the objective principles determined by practical reason; human agents have subjective impulses that they act in a particular way that is imperative that may occur in either hypothetical or categorical.

The Conception of Practical Reason

Wallis, 2004 noted that Kant insisted that humans are between the two worlds that are both sensible and intellectual; we are neither wholly determined to act by natural impulse, nor are we free of non-rational impulse, hence we need rules of conduct and need a principle to declares how we ought to act when it is in our power to choose.

He noted Kant’s claim that we find ourselves in the situation of possessing reason, being able to act according to our own conception of rules, there is a special burden on us; while other creatures are acted upon by the world, but having the ability to choose the principle to guide our actions makes us actors, therefore we must exercise our will and our reason to act.

According to him, Kant concluded that will is the capacity to act according to the principles provided by reason; reason assumes freedom and conceives of principles of action in order to function.

As Wallis, 2004, noted that Kant perceived that humans are not wholly rational beings, so they are liable to succumb to their non-rational impulses; and even when they exercise their reason fully, they often cannot know which action is the best.

According to Kant, moral actions are actions where reason leads, rather than follows, and actions where we must take other beings that act according to their own conception of the law, into account.

According to Kant, the metaphysical facts about the ultimate nature of things in themselves must remain a mystery to us because of the spatiotemporal constraints on sensibility; when we think about the nature of things in themselves or the ultimate ground of the empirical world we are still constrained to think through the categories, we cannot think otherwise, but we can have no knowledge because sensation provides our concepts with no content; hence, reason is put at odds with itself because it is constrained by the limits of its transcendental structure, but it seeks to have complete knowledge that would take it beyond those limits (Wallis, 2004).

Next, he elaborated that freedom plays a central role in Kant's ethics because the possibility of moral judgments presupposes it; freedom is an idea of reason that serves an indispensable practical function and without the assumption of freedom, reason cannot act.

Accordingly, if we think of ourselves as completely causally determined, and not as uncaused causes ourselves, then any attempt to conceive of a rule that prescribes the means by which some end can be achieved is pointless.

According to Kant, we cannot both think of ourselves as entirely subject to causal law and as being able to act according to the conception of a principle that gives guidance to my will; we cannot also help but think of our actions as the result of an uncaused cause if we are to act at all and employ reason to accomplish ends and understand the world.

Kant insisted that reason has an unavoidable interest in thinking of itself as free that is, theoretical reason cannot demonstrate freedom, but practical reason must assume for the purpose of action.

He said that reason creates for itself the idea of a spontaneity that can, on its own, start to act without needing to be preceded by another cause by means of which it is determined to action in turn, according to the law of causal connection; in its intellectual domain, reason must think of itself as free and it is dissatisfying that we cannot demonstrate freedom, nevertheless, it comes as no surprise that we must think of ourselves as free (Wallis, 2004).

Good Will

Wallis, 2004, exposed that Kant perceived that when we act, whether or not we achieve what we intend with our actions is often beyond our control, the morality of our actions does not depend upon their outcome; what we can control, however, is the will behind the action that is, we can will to act according to one law rather than another.

He further noted Kant’s claim that the morality of an action, therefore, must be assessed in terms of the motivation behind it.

According to him, Kant said that goodness cannot arise from acting on impulse or natural inclination, even if impulse coincides with duty; it can only arise from conceiving of one's actions in a certain way.

Kant argued that all intended effects could be brought about through other causes and would not require the will of a rational being, while the highest and unconditional good can be found only in such a will; it is the possession of a rationally guided will that adds a moral dimension to one's acts and so it is the recognition and appreciation of duty itself that must drive our actions.

Sayre, G. & McCord, 2000, elaborated that Kant distinguished between "good without qualification" and “good under certain conditions”; the former is a good will that is the only thing we can even imagine is good without qualification, the second related to everything else being at best good only with qualification.

Kant maintained that good will itself serves as a condition of the value of everything else that is something can be good only if it is compatible with a good will; therefore, a good will seems to constitute the indispensable condition of being even worthy of happiness and if a good will is unconditionally good then its value cannot depend upon its having good effects, furthermore if its value did depend on its having good effects it would be valuable only on the condition that it had those effects.

They reminded that Kant recognized that the idea that the role of reason is to make possible a good will rather than to help us satisfy our inclinations or make ourselves happy may seem high minded none sense; therefore, if nature's purpose in giving us reason was to help us satisfy our inclinations or desires or preferences or to make us happy, it would have made a big mistake.

Accordingly, a person is not exercising a good will when she does what she knows is wrong; however even when she is doing what she knows to be right she will be exercising a good will only if she does what she does because it is right and not because she expects some reward or happens to want to do it; therefore a person exercises a good will when that person acts is governed by whether so acting is compatible with her duty.

It can be summed up that good will related to only thing that can be called good without qualification and it can be perceived as good intentions and as an a priori concept; while will it self as the faculty of choosing from what comes before consequences deduced from principles that are assumed deductive reasoning from what is already known.

Good will is good in itself, regardless of effects or consequences whether absolutely or with qualification that consisted of talents of mind e.g. intelligence, wit, judgment; qualities of temperament e.g. courage, perseverance; and gifts of fortune e.g. power, wealth, honor.

Duty

According to Kant, the value of the action a person performs finds its value or worth not in the purpose that is to be attained by it but in the maxim according to which the action is determined that was at least compatible with duty.

However, if the value of an action done from duty is found not in the consequences it produces but in the respect for duty it expresses then one's duty must be to express that respect rather than to produce any particular effects.

He stressed that doing one's duty because it is one's duty must then be a matter not of trying to achieve some effect but of conforming one's will to a principle of duty that commands respect.

According to Kant, moral value is non derivative from nor dependent upon non moral value , and the morality is intrinsic to moral agency; while moral laws are “laws of freedom”; they are constraints that arise through the moral agent's own autonomous self-regulation.

Kant maintained that the very idea of moral duty already contains the idea of a law to which all rational agents are subject, and that we will agree that this is so when we reflect on what we ourselves think.

Moreover, Kant argues that, because the idea of moral duty includes this idea of a law or necessity to which all rational agents are subject, it cannot be grounded empirically; there can be no adequate justification for such an idea simply through our sensory or felt experience; the idea is a priori . (Darwall, 1997).

He noted that Kant claimed that everything in nature works in accordance with laws; only a rational being has the power to act in accordance with his idea of laws that is in accordance with principles and only so far has he a will; since reason is required in order to derive actions from laws, the will is nothing but practical reason. Since the universalized maxim is contradictory in and of itself, no one could will it to be law, and Kant concluded that we have a perfect duty (to which there can never be any exceptions whatsoever) not to act in this manner.

Kant stated that duty is the necessity of an action done out of respect for moral law and the only motive that counts to do an action strictly out of respect for moral law therefore we should seek for our inclination and duty to correspond, but if it doesn't duty should/ ought prevail and determining duty is a matter of reason (reason determines the form of the moral law).

Related to argument for an un-qualifiedly good will, he claimed that biological organisms are the fittest and best adapted for the purpose they serve; humans are rational creatures (i.e., humans possess reason); reason produces pain as well as happiness; happiness must not be the real end of nature for a being possessed of reason and will; reason is meant to have influence on the will ; and therefore, reason’s proper function must be to produce a will good in itself (as an end, not as a means).

He then outlined that action consists of actions that contrary to duty, actions that in accordance with duty but with no immediate inclination (remote), actions in accordance with duty but with immediate inclination, and actions in accordance with duty but contrary to some immediate inclination; therefore, duties composes of not to lie, preserve one's life, be of help to fellow human beings, and develop our skills and talents.

Propositions of Morality and Moral Imperative

Kant outlined that to have moral worth, an action must be done from duty and duty should always be on top of inclinations for action if the actions is to have moral worth; hence, the moral worth of an action done from duty lies not in the purpose to be achieved but in the maxim by which it is determined in which moral worth does not depend upon the outcome.

He perceived motive as an inclination, maxim as a rule or principle one follows in which moral worth depends upon this, and purpose as the ends to be achieved; while duty is the necessity of an action done of respect for law and that deserving respect is excellent as well as that deserving unqualified respect is that which is morally excellent.

He noted that common reason doesn't' think of morality so abstractly in its universal form, but the categorical imperative is the standard for our judgments and ordinary reason has as much hope of getting the right moral answer as any philosopher so philosophy is necessary because common reason can more readily be led astray and needed to provide a ground for morality.

Kemerling, 1997-2002, elaborated that although everything naturally acts in accordance with law, Kant supposed that only rational beings do so consciously, in obedience to the objective principles determined by practical reason; and human agents have subjective impulses that are desires and inclinations that may contradict the dictates of reason.

Therefore, we experience the claim of reason as an obligation, a command that we act in a particular way, or an imperative that may occur in either of two distinct forms, hypothetical or categorical.

He noted that, according to Kant, a hypothetical imperative conditionally demands performance of an action for the sake of some other end or purpose in the form "Do A in order to achieve X."; while a categorical imperative unconditionally demands performance of an action for its own sake in the form "Do A.

It can be concluded that hypothetical imperatives means to some end; good for some purpose and categorical imperatives means objectively necessary, without regard to any other end and no reference to purpose.

Darwall, 1997, explained that, according to Kant, moral imperatives are categorical imperatives, grounded in what he calls the Categorical Imperative; any free rational agent is committed to the Categorical Imperative by the logic of deliberative thought and if anything is morally right or wrong, then it is by virtue of (moral) norms that bind all rational agents.

Kant claimed that it is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will.

Kant then concluded that a good will is not good because of what it effects or accomplishes that is because of its fitness for attaining some proposed end; therefore, it is good through its willing alone that is, good in itself; and because its goodness is entirely intrinsic, and unconditioned by context, it is good without qualification.

Kant claimed that the goodness of moral character is intrinsic and unqualified; the only motives available to an agent are those provided by momentary inclinations and those that arise through practical reason.

Kant concluded that Categorical Imperative, that is strips morality of everything but form, never act in such a way that we could not will our maxim should be universal law and if a maxim cannot be willed into universal law, it must be discarded.

He stressed that maxim is a subjective principle of volition and it can be less than universal that is for the individual alone or universal that is maxims that can have full universality in everyone's life; all maxims have a form of consisting in universality; a matter that is namely, an end, and here the formula says that the rational being, as it is an end by its own nature and therefore an end in itself, must in every maxim serve as the condition limiting all merely relative and arbitrary ends; and a complete characterization of all maxims by means of that formula, namely, that all maxims ought by their own legislation to harmonize with a possible kingdom of ends as with a kingdom of nature.

According to Kant, the formulation of the Categorical Imperative can be Universal Law, End-in-Itself or Autonomy.

He insisted that in the Universal Law, act is perceived as though the maxim of our action were by our will to become a universal law of nature; in End-in-Itself, act is perceived as such thing that we treat humanity whether in our own person or that of another in which it always as an end and never as a means; and of Autonomy, it is about the will of every rational being legislates universal law.

Morality and Law

Darwall, 1997, elaborated Kant’s exposition that when we act for reasons we commit ourselves to beliefs about what any person would have a reason to do that is we commit ourselves to universal norms or principles applying to all rational agents.

Accordingly, only a rational being can act in accordance with his idea of laws.

Based on Kant, he lectured that the root idea is that the same features that make human beings subject to the moral law at the same time entitle them to respect as beings with their own wills and own reasons for acting.

According to Kant, the moral law itself requires a respect for that very capacity and we must respect it in ourselves and in others; he then argued that moral imperatives are categorical imperatives; any imperative that is conditional on some end is merely hypothetical; the possibility of a categorical imperative depends on there being some end which is essential to practical reason; the only possible such end is rational nature itself; there can be categorical imperatives only if rational nature is an end in it-self; and there can be moral imperatives only if rational nature is an end in itself, therefore there is a moral law only if it requires that persons respect rational nature as such.

Kant distinguishes two kinds of law produced by reason to elaborate what is the duty that is motivating our actions and giving them moral value.

According to Kant, giving some end to achieve, our reason can provide a hypothetical imperative, or rule of action for achieving that end.

A hypothetical imperative says that if we wish to achieve the end we must determine what sort of conditional goal and conceiving of a means to achieve some desired end is by far the most common employment of reason; however, the acceptable conception of the moral law cannot be merely hypothetical due to the fact that our actions cannot be moral on the ground of some conditional purpose or goal, therefore morality requires an unconditional statement of one's duty (Wallis, 2004).

Kant argued that reason produces an absolute statement of moral action and the moral imperative is unconditional; reason dictates a categorical imperative for moral action.

According to Kant, there are at least three formulations of the Categorical Imperative that are: act only according to that maxim by which we can at the same time will that it should become a universal law; act as though the maxim of our action were by our will to become a universal law of nature; and act so that we treat humanity, whether in our own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.

Kant argued that moral law has an aspect of acting according to the concept of law that is all nature works according to laws, however only humans can act according to the conception of laws that is acting according to principles.

He insisted that the will is a faculty of choice in which a good will always chooses what the moral law commands; while imperative was perceived as a command and they are always expressed by 'ought'.

For Kant, of God, the 'ought' is an 'is' and for humans God always chooses to do the right thing; therefore, of God, imperatives apply only to subjectively imperfect human will.


The Worth of Moral Beings


Kant insisted that morality alone is the condition which makes a rational being an end-in-itself in which morality and humanity alone have dignity ; the worth of moral beings have its relative value of price that can be replaced by equivalent and dignity that is intrinsic value which cannot be replaced by anything while each individual human being has also absolute value.

Darwall, 1997, elaborated from Kant that, in moral common sense, persons are not mere things or instruments; they have a dignity hat is worthy of respect.

Accordingly, they cannot be treated as objects to manipulate or use for one's own ends; they must always be treated with respect for their nature as rational and moral agents.

He noted that it is wrong simply to use people; rather one must respect their dignity as persons.

He noted that, according to Kant, the sublimity and intrinsic dignity of the command in duty are so much the more evident, the less the subjective impulses favor it and the more they oppose it, without being able in the slightest degree to weaken the obligation of the law or to diminish its validity.

According to Kant, in the kingdom of ends everything has either value or dignity and whatever has a value can be replaced by something else which is equivalent; whatever has reference to the general inclinations and wants of mankind has a market value; whatever corresponds to a certain taste that is to a satisfaction in the mere purposeless play of our faculties which constitutes the condition under which alone anything can be an end in itself that is dignity.

Kant insisted that morality is the condition under which alone a rational being can be an end in him-self, since by this alone is it possible that he should be a legislating member in the kingdom of ends; therefore morality and humanity as capable of it, is that which alone has dignity.

Due to the fact that nothing has any worth except what the law assigns it, the legislation itself which assigns the worth of everything must for that very reason possess dignity that is an unconditional incomparable worth and the word respect alone supplies a becoming expression for the esteem which a rational being must have for it.

Darwall, 1997, from Kant, insisted that neither fear nor inclination is the spring which can give actions a moral worth; if our own will act only under the condition that its maxims are potentially universal laws, this ideal will which is possible to us is the proper object of respect; and the dignity of humanity consists just in this capacity of being universally legislative, though with the condition that it is itself subject to this same legislation.

Morality and Religion

In the Critic of Practical Judgment, Kant stated that the man that is actually in a state of fear, finding in himself good reason to be so, because he is conscious of offending with his evil disposition against a might directed by a will at once irresistible and just, is far from being in the frame of mind for admiring divine greatness, for which a temper of calm reflection and a quite free judgment are required.

Furthermore, Kant stated that: Only when he becomes conscious of having a disposition that is upright and acceptable to God, do those operations of might serve, to stir within him the idea of the sublimity of this Being, so far as he recognizes the existence in himself of a sublimity of disposition consonant with His will, and is thus raised above the dread of such operations of nature, in which he no longer sees God pouring forth the vials of the wrath.

Even humility, taking the form of an uncompromising judgment upon his shortcomings, which, with consciousness of good intentions, might readily be glossed over on the ground of the frailty of human nature, is a sublime temper of the mind voluntarily to undergo the pain of remorse as a means of more and more effectually eradicating its cause.

In this way religion is intrinsically distinguished from superstition, which latter rears in the mind, not reverence for the sublime, but dread and apprehension of the all-powerful Being to whose will terror-stricken man sees himself subjected, yet without according Him due honor. From this nothing can arise but grace-begging and vain adulation, instead of a religion consisting in a good life.

Kant further claimed that sublimity , therefore, does not reside in any of the things of nature, but only in our own mind, in so far as we may become conscious of our superiority over nature within, and thus also over nature without us; everything that provokes this feeling in us, including the might of nature which challenges our strength, is then, though improperly, called sublime, and it is only under presupposition of this idea within us, and in relation to it, that we are capable of attaining to the idea of the sublimity of that being which inspires deep respect in us, not by the mere display of its might in nature, but more by the faculty which is planted in us of estimating that might without fear, and of regarding our estate as exalted above it.

Kant insisted that the proper mental mood for a feeling of the sublime postulates the mind's susceptibility for ideas; without the development of moral ideas, we merely strike the untutored man as terrifying.

References:

1.Sayre, G. & McCord, 2000, Kant's Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals A Very brief selective summary of sections I and II, summed up from Kant that one's judgments that one ought to act in one way or another fall into two different categories; sometimes the grounds one has for judging one ought so to act depend upon certain conditions being satisfied, so that the imperatives are hypothetical or conditional that is their practical force or their implications for action depends upon the conditions in fact being satisfied. Other times, the grounds one has for judging one ought so to act depend on nothing contingent, so that the imperatives are categorical that is their practical force or their implications for action is unconditional and so not dependent on the hypothesis that certain conditions are satisfied.
2.Ibid. Practical reason is the faculty of choice (the Will)
3.Darwall, 1997, Philosophy 361: Ethics: Kant Ii, Text Analysis Project Assignment For 10/22: Kant, Groundwork, Chapter 1: first three paragraphs and bottom p. 64 through p. 66, http://www.google.com/search, noted from Kant the contrast between good will, which he also refers to as a good of character, and, respectively, talents, temperament, and gifts of fortune. On what grounds are these, and their value, distinguished? First, the contrast seems to be between what the agent directly controls (his intention and effort to realize them) versus what is part of the choice context that confronts him. We are free to be good--not just what we do, but also, what principles we act on is up to us; second, the distinction in value that are the latter are not always good, and whether they are good depends on other things, importantly on whether they are accompanied by a good will and the value of the good will is not qualified by its relation to anything outside of it. Its value is independent of context and entirely unconditional.
4.Immanuel Kant, 1785, Fundamental Principles of The Metaphysic Of Morals, Second Section: Transition From Popular Moral Philosophy To The Metaphysic Of Morals translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, indicated that we have thus established at least this much, that if duty is a conception which is to have any import and real legislative authority for our actions, it can only be expressed in categorical and not at all in hypothetical imperatives.
5.Garth Kemerling, 1997-2002, Kant: The Moral Order, noted Kant argument that the moral value of the action can only reside in a formal principle or "maxim," the general commitment to act in this way because it is one's duty. Kant concluded that "duty is the necessity to act out of reverence for the law."
6.Kant: perfect duty that is to which there can never be any exceptions whatsoever not to act in this manner.
7.Rational creatures that is humans possess reason
8.Good in itself that is as an end, not as a means
9.Immediate inclination means remote
10.Sayre, G. & McCord, 2000, Kant's Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals A Very brief selective summary of sections I and II, http://www.google.com/search, noted Kant that a maxim might fail by not being universalizable that is by being such that the very conception of it as being a law governing all is inconsistent and therefore we have, as Kant would put it, a perfect duty to refrain from acting on such maxims or a maxim that might be universalizable might fail the requirements of the categorical imperative by being such that a person could not consistently will that the maxim be a universal law. According to Kant, the failure of the maxim is a failure of consistency in an important sense; there is no question that an immoral maxim can itself be perfectly consistent, after all people actually act on them. What is inconsistent is either (i) the conception of that maxim as a universal law or (ii) willing that the maxim serve as a universal law. Thus in testing a maxim (and so evaluating an action that might be performed on its basis) we can look for two kinds of inconsistency -- inconsistency in conception and inconsistency in willing.
11.Immanuel Kant, 1785, Fundamental Principles of The Metaphysic Of Morals,translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, insisted that whatever has reference to the general inclinations and wants of mankind has a market value; whatever, without presupposing a want, corresponds to a certain taste, that is to a satisfaction in the mere purposeless play of our faculties, has a fancy value; but that which constitutes the condition under which alone anything can be an end in itself, this has not merely a relative worth, i.e., value,but an intrinsic worth, that is, dignity.
12.Darwall, 1997, Philosophy 361: Ethics: Kant I, Text Analysis Project Assignment For 10/22: Kant, Groundwork, Chapter 1: first three paragraphs and bottom p. 64 through p. 66, http://www.google.com/search, cited from "Life, the Universe and Everything," in the memorable formula of Douglas Adams, elaborated that morality and religion have a far more limited rational content, returning to many of the same issues over and over again, but such issues happen to include, not just the questions about how to live, but the ultimate questions about the meaning of life and existence.
13.The Critic of Pure Judgment
14.Theodore Gracyk, 2004, in Philosophy Of Art, Hume And Kant:
Summary and Comparison, noted that Kant gives equal attention to beauty and sublimity. Another difference between Kant and Hume is that Kant emphasizes nature as an important object of taste. Finally, Kant does not share Hume's optimism that their common assumptions, associating beauty and sublimity with specific feelings, offer any basis for constructing a standard of taste. Recognition of sublimity has an explicitly moral dimension; section 42 of the Critic of Pure Reason, identifies a superiority of natural beauty over that of art on the grounds that the former indicates an interest in moral goodness; when we cannot postulate real purposes, nature's beauty interests those with a good moral attitude by suggesting that our moral ideas are similarly compatible with nature.

34 comments:

  1. Heni Lilia Dewi
    1609251054
    Pascasarjana Pendidikan Matematika 2016/ Kelas C

    We all know that moral is the basic to be developed. I do agree with three formulations of the Categorical Imperative. It says thatmoral law has an aspect of acting according to the concept of law that is all nature works according to laws, however only humans can act according to the conception of laws that is acting according to principles. So, as human we have to always include the moral in our actions in accordance with applicable law.

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  2. Cendekia Ad Dien
    16709251044
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016

    Esensi dari ajaran Kant tentang moral adalah (1) kewajiban menjadi dasar tindakan moral dan moralitas merupakan keselarasan antara sifat dan perbuatan manusia berdasarkan norma hukum batiniah manusia dan (2) kewajiban yang menjadi dasar tindakan moral yang mana memiliki dua kriteria yang disebut imperatif hipotetis dan imperatif kategoris. Imperatif hipotetis merupakan tujuan bersyarat artinya suatu tindakan diperlukan sebagai syarat untuk mencapai sesuatu atau tujuan yang kita inginkan dan dilakukan atas pertimbangan nilai moral. Sedangkan imperatif kategoris adalah keharusan yang tidak bersyarat artinya standar penilaian untuk memberi dasar bagi moralitas atau dasar penting yang menjadi prinsip dalam berpikir untuk melakukan tindakan.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Wahyu Lestari
    16709251074
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika 2016 Kelas D

    dari artikel di atas, di jelaskan bahwa Menurut Kant, hukum moral itu sendiri membutuhkan penghormatan terhadap kapasitas itu dan kita harus menghormatinya dalam diri kita dan orang lain; Dia kemudian berpendapat bahwa imperatif moral adalah keharusan kategoris; Setiap keharusan yang bersyarat pada suatu akhir hanya bersifat hipotetis; Kemungkinan imperatif kategoris tergantung pada ada beberapa akhir yang penting untuk alasan praktis; Satu-satunya kemungkinan akhir itu adalah sifat rasional itu sendiri; Hanya ada keharusan kategoris jika sifat rasional adalah tujuan di dalamnya; Dan hanya ada keharusan moral hanya jika sifat rasional adalah tujuan itu sendiri, oleh karena itu ada hukum moral hanya jika mengharuskan orang menghormati sifat rasional seperti itu.

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  4. Sumandri
    16709251072
    S2 pendidikan Matematika 2016

    Dari artikel diatas saya bisa menarik beberapa hal yang menjadi inti dari ajaran Kant tentang moral (etika). Pertama, bagi Kant kewajiban menjadi dasar tindakan moral dan moralitas merupakan kesesuaian antara sifat dan perbuatan manusia dengan norma hukum batiniah manusia. Kedua, kewajiban yang menjadi dasar tindakan moral memiliki dua Kriteria yang disebut dengan imperatif hipotetis dan imperatif kategoris. Imperatif hipotetis merupakan perintah bersyarat, artinya suatu tindakan diperlukan sebagai sarana untuk mencapai tujuan. Sedangkan imperatif kategoris adalah keharusan yang tidak bersyarat. Baik bagi kita untuk merubah kebiasaan yang mungkin selama ini kita sadari sebagai imperatif hipotetis. Hanya bertindak demi mendapatkan sesuatu yang hendak dicapai tanpa memperhatikan nilai moral yang terkandung didalamnya. Kant menawarkan kepada kita mengenai kewajiban yang menuntun kita untuk bertindak berdasarkan kewajiban mutlak dalam diri kita. Tampaknya sangat keras, dan memang keras, karena didalamnya tidak mengandung unsur suka dan tidak suka, benci dan tidak benci, cinta dan tidak cinta melainkan kebaikan mutlak pada dirinya.

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  5. PUTRI RAHAYU S
    S2 PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKA_D 2016
    16709251070

    Teori Kant tentang moralitas ini menyatakan potensi kemanusiaan untuk membatasi keterbatasan kita. Secara moral, kita juga terbatas: kita sering di dorong oleh nafsu dan keinginan hewani dari pada di dorong oleh pertimbangan moral. Namun demikian, dalam kasus moralitas menurut Kant, kita masih mampu mengetahui apa yang benar. Pandangannya tentang moralitas menangkap inti rasional dan universal tentang penalaran moral, yang kemudian dapat memberi tolak ukur bagi kritik moral yang beroperasi melintasi batas-batas budaya dan kekuasaan.

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  6. Sehar Trihatun
    16709251043
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas C – 2016

    Kant berpendapat bahwa moralitas itu sendiri merupakan kondisi yang membuat seorang mahluk bermoral sehingga menjadikan moralitas dan kemanusiaan memiliki martabat. nilai dari mahluk bermoral memiliki nilai yang relatif dari harga yang dapat digantikan oleh kesetaraan dan martabat yaitu nilai intrinsik yangmana tidak dapat digantikan dengan apapun ketika setiap individu manusia juga telah memiliki nilai yang absolut. Dalam pandangan moral, seseorang bukanlah benda atau alat, mereka memiliki martabat yang patut untuk dihormati. Dengan demikian, mereka tidak dapat diperlakukan sebagai sebuah objek manipulasi atau digunakan untuk tujuan sendiri. Mereka harus selalu diperlakukan dengan hormat karena hakikatnya sebagai mahluk yang bermoral dan rasional.

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  7. Lihar Raudina Izzati
    16709251046
    P. Mat C 2016 PPs UNY

    Moralitas dalam pandangan Kant selanjutnya dipahami sebagai kesesuaian sikap dan perbuatan kita dengan norma atau hukum batiniah kita, yakni apa yang itu pandang sebagai kewajiban kita ”the agreement of an action with Ethical Laws, is its Morality”. Moralitas barulah dapat diukur ketika seseorang mentaati hukum secara lahiriah karena kesadaran bahwa hukum itu adalah kewajiban dan bukan lantaran takut pada kuasa sang pemberi hukum, melainkan kita sendiri menyadari bahwa hukum itu merupakan kewajiban kita.

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  8. Primaningtyas Nur Arifah
    16709251042
    Pend. Matematika S2 kelas C 2016
    Assalamu’alaikum. Kant memandang bahwa satu-satunya fitur yang memberi tindakan bernilai moral bukanlah hasil yang dicapai oleh aksinya, namun motif yang ada di balik aksinya. Kant mengklaim bahwa prinsip utama moralitas harus menjadi hukum moral yang dipahami secara abstrak sehingga mampu membimbing kita untuk melakukan tindakan yang benar dalam penerapan setiap keadaan yang mungkin terjadi; Oleh karena itu, satu-satunya ciri hukum moral yang relevan adalah generalitasnya.

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  9. Helva Elentriana
    16709251068
    PPS Pend Matematika Kelas D 2016

    Moralitas adalah sifat moral atau keseluruhan asas dan nilai yang berkenaan dengan baik dan buruk (Bertens, 2002:7). Moralitas juga berperan sebagai pengatur dan petunjuk bagi manusia dalam berperilaku agar dapat dikategorikan sebagai manusia yang baik dan dapat menghindari perilaku yang buruk (Keraf, 1993: 20). Moralitas berhubungan perilaku seseorang. Dimana perilaku merujuk pada yang baik dan buruk. Tentu kita diwajibkan untuk berperilaku baik dan menghindari perilaku buruk. Pada elegi ini Kant juga menjelaskan tentang moralitas. Tentang bagaimana kita menjaga moralitas yaitu menjaga perilaku yang sesuai dengan anjuran hikum, anjuran agama yang dianut.

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  10. Loviga Denny Pratama
    16709251075
    S2 P.Mat D

    Ada beberapa yang bisa saya tangkap pada artikel ini, salah satunya niat baik hanya terkait dengan hal yang dapat disebut baik tanpa kualifikasi dan dapat dianggap sebagai niat baik dan sebagai konsep apriori. Sementara itu kita harus memilih dari apa yang ada sebelum konsekuensi yang disimpulkan dari prinsip penalaran deduktif yang diasumsikan dari apa yang sudah diketahui. Kehendak baik itu baik dalam dirinya sendiri, terlepas dari efek atau konsekuensi apakah benar atau dengan kualifikasi yang terdiri dari pemikiran kita. Misalnya dalam kecerdasan, kecerdasan, penilaian. Misalnya juga dalam kualitas temperamen misalnya Keberanian, ketekunan. Oleh karena itu penting bagi kita dalam memahami sebagai kesesuaian sikap dan perbuatan kita dengan norma atau hukum yang berlaku pada masyarakat.

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  11. Anwar Rifa’i
    PMAT C 2016 PPS
    16709251061

    Wallis, 2004, membeberkan bahwa Kant merasakan bahwa ketika kita bertindak, atau tidak kita mencapai apa yang kita ingin kita sering berada di luar kendali kita, moralitas tindakan kita tidak tergantung pada hasil; apa yang bisa kita kontrol, bagaimanapun, adalah kehendak di balik tindakan kita sesuai dengan salah satu hukum daripada yang lain. Dia lebih jauh mencatat klaim Kant bahwa moralitas dari suatu tindakan, oleh karena itu, harus dinilai dalam hal motivasi di balik itu.

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  12. Lana Sugiarti
    16709251062
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika D 2016

    Kant memandang bahwa satu-satunya fitur yang memberi tindakan bernilai moral bukanlah hasil yang dicapai oleh aksinya, namun motif yang ada di balik aksinya. Imperatif kategoris adalah pernyataan Kant yang terkenal mengenai tugas ini, menyatakan bahwa sebuah tindakan hanya sesuai dengan pepatah yang dengannya kita dapat pada saat yang sama menyatakan bahwa hal itu seharusnya menjadi hukum universal. Kant mengklaim bahwa kita menemukan diri kita dalam situasi memiliki alasan, dapat bertindak sesuai dengan konsep kita sendiri tentang peraturan, ada beban khusus pada kita. Sementara makhluk lainnya ditindaklanjuti oleh dunia, namun memiliki kemampuan untuk memilih prinsip untuk membimbing tindakan kita membuat kita menjadi aktor, oleh karena itu kita harus menjalankan kehendak dan alasan kita untuk bertindak. Menurut Kant, tindakan moral adalah tindakan yang menyebabkan alasan, bukan mengikuti, dan tindakan di mana kita harus mengambil makhluk lain yang bertindak sesuai dengan konsepsi mereka sendiri tentang hukum.

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  13. Nurwanti Adi Rahayu
    16709251067
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas D 2016

    Kant berpendapat bahwa moralitas tidak menyangkut hal yang baik dan buruk.
    Melainkan baik pada dirinya sendiri, tanpa pembatasan sama sekali. Kebaikan moral yang ada dan yang mjungkin ada baik dari semua sisi, tanpa ada pembatasan sama sekali.
    Secara mutlak kebaikkan itu tetaplah baik, walaupun konsekuensinya merugikan orang lain. Yang baik tanpa adanya batasan sama sekali menurutnya hanyalah satu, yakni kehendak baik (good will). Kehendak itu selalu baik dan dalam kebaikannya tidak tergantung pada sesuatu di luar.

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  15. Kunny Kunhertanti
    16709251060
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika kelas C 2016

    Kant menegaskan bahwa suasana hati mental yang tepat untuk perasaan luhur yang mendalilkan kerentanan pikiran untuk ide-ide, tanpa pengembangan ide-ide moral, kita hanya menyerang orang tak terdidik sebagai menakutkan. Pandangan tentang moralitas yang menangkap inti rasional dan universal tentang penalaran moral, hal yang kemudian menjadi tolak ukur bagi kritik moral.

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  16. Annisa Hasanah
    16709251051
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika C 2016

    Dari tulisan tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tujuan utama dari filsafat kritis yang dilahirkan oleh Kant adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa manusia dapat memahami realitas alam dan moral dengan memanfaatkan akal budi manusia itu sendiri. Adapun pengetahuan tentang alam dan moralitas itu berpijak pada hukum-hukum yang bersifat apriori, yakni hukum-hukum yang diperoleh sebelum pengalaman inderawi. Pada ulasan tersebut dijelaskan pula bahwa Kant untuk menempatkan persoalan moralitas pada akal budi karena Kant tidak hanya terpaku pada penjelasan-penjelasan teologis-agamis untuk menjelaskan fenomena moral manusia, melainkan berusaha menemukan pendasaran rasional pula.

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  17. Windi Agustiar Basuki
    16709251055
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas C – 2016


    Filsafat moral Kant menyatakan kesadaran moral merupakan fakta yang tidak dapat dibantah meskipun bukan obyek inderawi, namun membuka kenyataan bidang realitas adi inderawi. Sehingga satu-satunya cara untuk klaim moralitas atas keabsahan universal melalui subyek itu sendiri.

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  18. Yosepha Patricia Wua Laja
    16709251080
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika D 2016

    Buah pikiran Immanuel Kant dalam tataran kritik atas rasio praktis yang menjadi kaidah bagi kehidupan manusia modern seperti 1)Maksim-maksim (kaidah-kaidah pribadi) yang berbeda pada setiap orang mulai dari aturan yang permanen dan bersifat pribadi sampai dengan aturan yang bisa berubah-ubah; 2)Undang-undang (kaidah umum) yakni aturan yang resmi/formal dan bersifat eksternal (datang dari luar diri kita); 3)Imperatif hipotetis (seandainya, harus).4) Imperatif kategoris (aturan mutlak). Aturan ini mencakup totalitas hidup yang mendasar. Contoh: Harus menepati janji, jangan berbohong.
    Pemikiran Kant yang lain yang berpengaruh yakni tujuan moral adalah “kebahagiaan” (eudaimonisme). Kehidupan moral bisa dipahami dan ada artinya (make-sense), jika memegang tiga hal sebagai postulatnya: a) Ada kebebasan untuk memilih ataupun tidak memilih. b)Ada jiwa: unsur psikis sejauh wilayah psikologis. C) Ada Tuhan yang bisa mengganjar kehidupan moral orang-orang baik di dunia dan akhirat.

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  19. Dessy Rasihen
    16709251063
    S2 P.MAT D

    Menurut Kant moral tidak dapat di sandarkan kepada kebahagiaan. Manusia tidak akan tahu konsekuensi yang terjadi jika mengandalkan tindakan semata-mata hanya untuk kebahagiaan. Lebih jauh menurut Kant kebaikan moral baik dari semua sisi, tanpa ada pembatasan sama sekali. Kant memulai suatu pemikiran baru dalam bidang etika dimana ia melihat tindakan manusia diterima secara moral apabila tindakan tersebut dilakukan berdasarkan kewajiban. Kant menempatkan persoalan moralitas pada akal budi karena tidak hanya terpaku pada penjelasan-penjelasan agama untuk menjelaskan fenomena moral manusia.

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  20. Ratih Eka Safitri
    16709251059
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika C 2016

    Elegi Menggapai "KANT’S ACCOUNT OF MORAL EXPERIENCE", menurut Immanuel Kant, moralitas adalah pemenuhan kewajiban yang didorong oleh keinginan memenuhi kewajiban yang muncul dari kehendak baik dari dalam diri. Selanjutnya Kant menjabarkan kriteria kewajiban moral, landasan epistemologinya bahwa tindakan moral manusia merupakan apriori akal budi praktis murni yang mana sesuatu yang menjadi kewajiban kita tidak didasarkan pada realitas empiris, tidak berdasarkan perasaan, isi atau tujuan dari tindakan.

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  21. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Immauel Kant (1724-1804) adalah seorang filosof Jerman yang berhasil menyatukan pandangan Rasionalisme dan Empirisme lewat pemikirannya yang terkenal dengan sintesis a priori. menurutnya pengetahuan tidak murni berasal dari akal, sebagaimana yang diungkapkan kaum rasionalis, namun pengetahuan juga tidak selalu berdasarkan pengalaman inderawi. Filsafatnya juga dikenal dengan kritisisme yang dilawankan dengan filsafat sebelumnya, yakni dogmatisme. Tindakan kritis beliau yang sangat luar biasa sangat memberikan sumbangan besar bagi dunia pengetahuan.

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  22. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Jasa besar seorang Immanuel Kant dibandingkan filsuf-filsuf modern lain, yaitu telah membuat orang bertanya, “Konsepsi tentang alam semesta bagaimana yang diperlukan jika kita mau memahami pengalaman moral”. Kemudian Kant tidak memberikan jawaban yang benar, tetapi beliau membuat kita menanyakan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang benar.

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  23. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Etika yang digagas Immanuel Kant berbeda sekali dengan yang digagas oleh filosof sebelumnya. Etika Kant secara hakiki merupakan etika kewajiban yang tidak menuntut adanya kebahagiaan atau faktor-faktor emosi lainnya dari luar.

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  24. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Kewajiban yang murni berasal dari kehendak kita untuk melakukannya tanpa adanya pemaksaan. Selain itu, etika Kant tidak mengharuskan adanya konsekuensi sebagaimana dalam utilitarianisme, justru Kant lebih mengutamakan adanya konsistensi.

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  25. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Sebagaimana yang beliau pernah katakan “consistency is the highest obligation of a philosopher and yet the most rarely found”. Kant juga percaya bahwa moral tidak dapat di sandarkan kepada kebahagiaan. Kita tidak akan pernah tahu apa konsekuensi yang terjadi jika kita mengandalkan tindakan kita semata-mata hanya untuk kebahagiaan.

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  26. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Ada tiga kemungkinan orang melakukan kewajiban, yakni karena menguntungkan, dorongan dari hati/ belas kasihan dan karena kewajiban. Menurut Kant hanya kehendak yang terakhir inilah yang betul-betul bermoral.

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  27. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Melakukan perbuatan karena menguntungkan ataupun karena belas kasihan itu disebut dengan legalitas. Secara lahiriah dua keadaan tersebut memang ada kesesuaian antara kehendak dan kewajiban, tapi secara batin segi kewajiban tidak memiliki peranan.

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  28. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Melakukan kewajiban karena mau memenuhi kewajiban itulah yang disebut kehendak baik (good will) tanpa pembatasan. Itu yang dimaksud dengan moralitas menurut Kant. Selain itu, tindakan moral juga harus bersifat sintetik a priori.

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  29. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    Pendidikan Matematika I

    Menurut sumber yang saya baca, jujur itu benar, jujur itu a priori, diketahui oleh semua orang dalam akal murni /pure reason, sedangkan benar itu sintesis, karena konsep benar tidak terkandung di dalam konsep jujur. Oleh karena itu ia termasuk sintesis a priori.

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  30. Zuliyanti
    14301241009
    S1 Pendidikan Matematika I

    Contoh kasus, misalnya saja ketika sedang berlangsung ujian di kelas, ada teman yang pintar dan ia ingin membantu kita menyelesaikan soal-soal pertanyaan dengan memberikan kertas jawaban. Jika kita menolak atau mengabaikannya, berarti kita melakukan tindakan yang benar/ right. Meskipun mungkin saja kita menolak menerima jawaban itu karena takut ketahuan guru. Mencontek adalah perbuatan buruk, walaupun di satu sisi ia menguntungkan karena bisa membuat nilai kita tinggi. Kehendak baiklah yang akan mendorong kita untuk mengerjakan soal ujian sendiri, tanpa bantuan contekan dari orang lain.

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  31. Wahyu Berti Rahmantiwi
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016
    16709251045

    Karya Kant mengenai etika yaitu The Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals mengenai tentang pencarian dan pembentukan prinsip moralitas tertinggi Kant dan The Critique of Practical Reason mengenai usaha Kant dalam menyatukan penjelasannya tentang alasan praktis dengan karyanya dalam Critique of Pure Reason. Kant memandang bahwa tindakan bernilai moral bukanlah hasil dari suatu tindakan, namun motif yang ada di balik tindakan tersebut. Sebuah tindakan hanya menjadi hukum universal. Kant bersikeras bahwa hanya makhluk rasional yang melakukannya secara sadar, dalam mematuhi prinsip obyektif yang ditentukan oleh alasan praktis.

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  32. Syaifulloh Bakhri
    16709251049
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika C 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb.
    Moral merupakan suara hati, perasaan, dan pada hakekatnya suatu prinsip yang apriori dan absolut. Moral merupakan realitas yang didalamnya berkaitan dengan sikap benar atau salah.

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  33. Sylviyani Hardiarti
    16709251069
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas D 2016

    Menurut Immanuel Kant, moralitas adalah pemenuhan kewajiban yang didorong oleh keinginan memenuhi kewajiban yang muncul dari kehendak baik dari dalam diri. Bagi Kant, kewajiban menjadi dasar tindakan moral dan moralitas merupakan kesesuaian antara sifat dan perbuatan manusia dengan norma hukum batiniah manusia. Kewajiban yang menjadi dasar tindakan moral memiliki dua kriteria yang disebut dengan imperatif hipotetis dan imperatif kategoris. Imperatif hipotetis merupakan perintah bersyarat, artinya suatu tindakan diperlukan sebagai sarana untuk mencapai tujuan. Sedangkan imperatif kategoris adalah keharusan yang tidak bersyarat. Baik bagi kita untuk merubah kebiasaan yang mungkin selama ini kita sadari sebagai imperatif hipotetis.

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  34. Ardeniyansah
    16709251053
    S2 Pend. Matematika Kelas C_2016

    Assalamualaikum wr. . wb.
    Etika yang digagas Imanuel Kant berbeda sekali dengan yang digagas oleh filsuf sebelumnya. Etika Kant secara hakiki merupakan etika kewajiban yang tidak menuntut adanya kebahagiaan atau faktor emosi lainnya dari luar. Untuk memahami konsep pemikiran Imanuel Kant dalam etika alangkah baiknya jika kita juga sudah mengetahui metode yang di pakai Kant, yakni murni a priori. a priori berarti sebelum pengalaman dalam artiannya masih murni belum terkontaminasi oleh pengalaman atau pemikiran orang lain baik berupa nilai budaya atau adat istiadat suatu masyarakat. Jadi metode Kant adalah murni deduktif, tanpa memiliki perhatian terhadap pengalaman empiris. sehingga dalam persoalan etika ini menurutnya prinsip moralitas tidak tergantung pada pengalaman sama sekali. Melainkan benar-benar berasal dari kehendak dalam diri, dalam hal ini disebut “ authonomi kehendak”.

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