Oct 10, 2012

Elegi Menggapai "Kant’s Method of Discovering the Concepts of the Pure Understanding"

By Marsigit

In the “Critique of Pure Reason”, Kant (1787) addresses the challenge of subsuming particular sensations under general categories in the Schematism section.

Kant argues that Transcendental Schemata allow us to identify the homogeneous features picked out by concepts from the heterogeneous content of our sensations.

Therefore, he indicates that judgment is only possible if the mind can recognize the components in the diverse and disorganized data of sense that make those sensations an instance of a concept or concepts.

Further, Kant argues that the necessary conformity of objects to natural law arises from the mind.

Kant's transcendental method has permitted us to reveal the a priori components of sensations i.e. the a priori concepts.

There are a priori judgments that must necessarily govern all appearances of objects.

These judgments are a function of the Table of Categories in determining all possible judgments.

The continuity of nature is also reflected in the dynamical categories, which are divided into those of relation and those of modality.

The relational categories are substance-accident, cause-effect, and agent-patient.

In each case, the corresponding principle is one of continuity.

Kant held that the only change occurred is a change in the state of an existing thing.

Thus, there are no discontinuities of existence in nature, no new things coming to be, and no existing things passing away.

All change is bound by laws of nature, which precludes the discontinuity that would result if change were random.

Following is the schematized of categories which is summarized by Kant :

Categories of the Understanding

As to:

Quantity - Quality - Relation – Modality
Unity (Measure) Reality Substance Possibility
Plurality (Magnitude) Negation Cause Existence
Totality (Whole) Limitation Community Necessity

Since individual images are perfectly separable as they occur within the sensory manifold, connections among them can be drawn only by the knowing subject in which the principles of connection are to find.

As in mathematics, so in science the synthetic a priori judgments must derive from the structure of the understanding itself.

Transcendental illusion is the result of applying the understanding and sensibility beyond their limits.

Although the objective rules may be the same in each case, the subjective idea of causal connection can lead to different deductions.

Kant argues that in the sections titled the Axioms, Anticipations, Analogies, and Postulates, there are a priori judgments that must necessarily govern all appearances of objects.

These judgments are a function of the Table of Categories in determining all possible judgments.

Axioms of Intuition states that all intuitions are extensive magnitudes.

Anticipations of Perception states that in all appearances the real that is an object of sensation has intensive magnitude, i.e., a degree.

Analogies of Experience states that:

a. in all variations by appearances substance is permanent, and its quantum in nature is neither increased nor decreased;

b. all changes occur according to the law of the connection of cause and effect; and

c. all substances, insofar as they can be perceived in space as simultaneous, are in thoroughgoing interaction.

Postulates of Empirical Thought states:

a. what agrees with the formal conditions of experience is possible;

b. what coheres with the material conditions of experience is actual; and that whose coherence with the actual is determined according to universal conditions of experience is necessary.


1 Kant in “Kant” Retrieved 2004
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid.
4 Kant in Kemerling, G., 2001, “Kant: Synthetic A Priori Judgement.”. Retieved 2003
5 Kan in Meibos, A., 1998, “Intro to Philosophy: Kant and a priori Synthetic Judgments”, Prof. Arts Notes for PHIL 251 Retrieved 2004
6In Wallis, S.F, 2004, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), New York: Media & Communication, The European Graduate School. Retreived 2004

No comments:

Post a Comment