Oct 13, 2012
Indonesian Philosophy among the World’s Crises
Since the crisis, began in February 1998 and to be continues in 2008 as massive layoffs and the collapse of the country's multi dimensional aspects; there are a great euphoria of all the nations components, independent organizations of the workers, peasants, students, intellectuals or any other sector of the masses, to reflect the
past and the present and expect of the future life. It of course, including to reflect the role of Indonesian philosophy “Pancasila” as the ideology of the nation. As it was stated in preamble, the 1945 constitution sets forth the Indonesian philosophy as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state. Indonesian philosophy consists of two Sanskrit words." Panca "meaning five, and " Sila " meaning principle. It comprises five inseparable and interrelated principles. They are: Belief in the One and Only God ; Just and Civilized Humanity ; The Unity of Indonesia ; Democracy Guided by the Inner Wisdom in the Unanimity Arising Out of Deliberations Amongst Representatives, and Social Justice for all Indonesian people.
Kaelan, 2002, in his “Pancasila” elaborated that the first principle of Indonesian philosophy cannot be separated from the value of religious in Indonesia due to the fact that Indonesian philosophy is not only such kind of contemplation but also a philosophical and political consensus. Indonesian philosophy is the resources of the value for running the country; therefore, the essence of first principle of Indonesian philosophy, which is characterized as abstract and universal, should meet with the operational, moral and legal aspects of the nations. For Indonesian people, God is understood not only as the Supreme Being but also a the creator of the cosmos, he must also be understood as a supernatural being and as a supernatural cause; God created man in his own image by giving human beings immaterial intellects and, with that, also free will is a further indication that in the course of human affairs the totally unpredictable is present.
This principle requires that human beings be treated with due regard to their dignity as God's creatures; it emphasizes that the Indonesian people do not tolerate physical or spiritual oppression of human beings by their own people or by any other nations. It is that they are all human, all members of one species, called *Homo sapiens*, and all having the same natural and thereby the same specific attributes that differentiate them from the members of all other species. In all other respects, any two human beings may be found unequal, one having more of a certain human attribute than another, either as the result of native endowment or of individual attainment; however, this second principle taught that (1) that all human beings are equal in respect of their common humanity, and (2) that all human beings are also unequal, one with another, in a wide variety of respects in which they differ as individual members of the human species.
Kaelan, 2002, noted that Indonesian philosophy develops “monodualism democracy” in which people make decision-making through deliberations, or musyawarah, to reach a consensus, or mufakat; the democracy that right must always be exercised with a deep sense of responsibility to God Almighty according to ones own conviction and religious belief with respect for humanitarian values of man's dignity and integrity, and with a view to preserving and strengthening national unity and the pursuit of social justice. He also stated that this fourth principle of Indonesian philosophy consists of three aspects of philosophical ideal: political democracy, socio-economical democracy and reaching the concencus.
This principle of social justice means for the equitable spread of welfare to the entire population, not in a static but in a dynamic and progressive way. This means that all the country's natural resources and the national potentials should be utilized for the greatest possible good and happiness of the people. Social justice implies protection of the weak. But protection should not deny them work. On the contrary, they should work according to their abilities and fields of activity. Protection should prevent willful treatment by the strong and ensure the rule of justice. These are the sacred values of Indonesian philosophy which, as a cultural principle should always be respected by every Indonesian because it is now the ideology of the state and the life philosophy of the Indonesian people. Amidst the world’s crises it may useful for Indonesian people to reflects their contemporary life in order to do the best in the future.
Kaelan, 2002, “Filsafat Indonesian philosophy: Pandangan Hidup Bangsa Indonesia”, Yogyakarta: Paradigma