Nov 30, 2012

Philosophy of Science_Narated by Marsigit




KANT’S ACCOUNT OF SCIENCE
By Marsigit, Yogyakarta State University
Email: marsigitina@yahoo.com



It was elaborated in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003, Kant's Philosophy of Science, that in developing the philosophy of science, Kant held that scientific laws do involve necessity, but that this necessity is based not on relations between universals, but rather on certain subjective, a priori conditions under which we can experience objects in space and time. Wallis (2004) noted Kant’s claim that a number of synthetic a priori claims, like those from geometry and the natural sciences, are true because of the structure of the mind that knows them; therefore, "Every event must have a cause" cannot be proven by experience, but experience is impossible without it because it describes the way the mind must necessarily order its representations. He cited Kant’s argument in the Refutation of Material Idealism that "There are objects that exist in space and time outside of me," which cannot be proven by a priori or a posteriori methods, is a necessary condition of the possibility of being aware of one's own existence.

Preconditions for Natural Science

Kemerling (2001) noted from Kant that in natural science, synthetic a priori judgments provide the necessary foundations for human knowledge. The most general laws of nature, like the truths of mathematics, cannot be justified by experience, yet must apply to it universally. He noted that according to Kant, applying the concepts of space and time as forms of sensible intuition is necessary condition for any perception; however, the possibility of scientific knowledge requires that our experience of the world be not only perceivable but thinkable as well, and Kant held that the general intelligibility of experience entails the satisfaction of two further conditions: first, it must be possible in principle to arrange and organize the chaos of our many individual sensory images by tracing the connections that hold among them that Kant called the synthetic unity of the sensory manifold; second, it must be possible in principle for a single subject to performthis organization by discovering the connections among perceived images and this is satisfied by what Kant called the transcendental unity of apperception. He noted Kant’s claim that experiential knowledge is thinkable only if there is some regularity in what is known and there is some knower in whom that regularity can be represented; since we do actually have knowledge of the world as we experience it, Kant held, both of these conditions must in fact obtain.


In can be inferred that the feature of Kant's conception of natural science requires that cognition should be systematically ordered, accord to rational principles and be a priori with apodictic certainty that is consciousness of their necessity; and according to Kant, science proper requires a metaphysics of nature that consist in either a "transcendental part," which discusses the laws that make possible the concept of a nature in general or a "special metaphysical" part, which concerns a "particular nature of this kind of things" for which an empirical concept is given. Kant suggested that in special metaphysics the principles of the transcendental part, are applied to the two species of objects of our senses; therefore, the particular kinds of things that could be investigated in a special metaphysics are the objects of outer sense, i.e., matter, and the objects of inner sense, i.e., thinking beings, which would thus result in a doctrine of body and a doctrine of soul.[1]

Phoronomy and Dynamics

It was stated in the first chapter of the Metaphysical Foundations, the Phoronomy, that Kant considers the quantity of motion of matter and how it is to be constructed in intuition a priori. Kant claim that due to the relativity of space, every motion can be viewed arbitrarily as either the motion of a body in a space at rest, or as a body in a state of rest in a space which is in motion in the opposite direction with the same velocity. Kant delivered the theorem that "the composition of two motions of one and the same point can only be thought in such a way that one of them is represented in absolute space,
and, instead of the other, a motion of the relative space with the same speed occurring in the opposite direction is represented as the same as the latter".[2]

In the second chapter of the Metaphysical Foundations, the Dynamics, Kant considered how it is possible to experience matter as filling a determinate region in space; he exhibited the nature and necessity of repulsive forces and argued that repulsive force is required for matter to fill space, Kant then specifies several central features of repulsive forces and admit of degrees to infinity, since one must always be able to think of a slightly greater or lesser force, and although matter can be compressed to infinity, it can never be penetrated, since that would require an infinite compressing force, which is impossible. Further, Kant drew an important consequence from his characterization of repulsive forces, namely that matter is infinitely divisible; he accepted attractive and repulsive forces, but denied the infinite divisibility of what ultimately constitutes matter, namely physical points or monads.[3]

Kant recognized that both space and spatial properties such as divisibility are not properties of things in themselves but rather only appearances, one can reject the proposition that seems to necessitate the acceptance of simple substances, namely the idea that simple substances must precede the wholes they compose. He argued that matter must have an attractive force in order to fill space; accordingly, if there were only repulsive forces, then matter would disperse itself to infinity since neither space nor other matter could limit it. He argued that both attractive and repulsive forces must be considered essential to matter that is attractive forces alone are not sufficient to account for matter filling a space, since if matter consisted solely of attractive forces, there would be no force to counteract the attractive force being exercised and the universe would collapse into a single point. [4]  

Kant specified how attractive forces are to be understood, namely as the immediate action of matter on other matter through empty space; he then confronted the metaphysical question of how to understand attraction that Newton attempted to avoid by positing it merely mathematically. He argued that action at a distance is no more problematic than action by means of physical contact, since in both cases a body is simply acting outside itself; therefore, attractive forces act immediately to infinity and by adding a preliminary suggestion as to how one might be able to construct the concept of cohesion. Kant considered that the specific varieties of matter might be reduced, at least in principle, to the fundamental forces of attraction and repulsion. He then defined that mathematical-mechanical is associated with the postulation of atoms and the void, employs nothing more than the shapes and motions of fundamental particles and empty interstices interspersed among them; and metaphysical-dynamical mode of explanation employs fundamental moving forces in its explanations.[5]

Mechanics

About the Mechanics, Kant concerned how it is possible to experience matter as having a moving force, that is, how one matter communicates its motion to another by means of its moving force; he then strive to clarified how the quantity of matter is to be estimated before stating. He asserted that the quantity of matter can be estimated only by the quantity of motion at a given speed; the quantity of matter, which is the aggregate of the movable in a determinate space, cannot be estimated by counting the number of parts it has, since, every matter is infinitely divisible. He claimed that we cannot estimate the quantity of matter merely by considering its volume, since different matters can have different specific densities; therefore, the only universally applicable way of estimating the quantity of matter is to hold the velocity of matter constant. He then claimed that the total quantity of matter remains the same throughout all changes in matter; further, he assumed that the ultimate subject of all accidents inhering in matter must be the movable
in space, and that its quantity is the aggregate of the movable in space. He then added that that there is a crucial difference between spatial and non-spatial substances, therefore since the quantity of matter consists in a plurality of real things external to each other that cannot fade away, the only way to decrease its quantity is by division.[6]

Kant argued that every change in matter has an external cause; all changes occur in accordance with the law of cause and effect and thus entails that every change in matter has a cause as well as on the further assumption that matter has no internal grounds of determinations but rather only external relations in space. He asserted that the very possibility of natural science proper depends on the law of inertia, since the rejection of it would be the death of all natural philosophy; if inertia were to entail an active force of resistance, then it would be possible that when one moving body hits another, the moving body has to apply part of its motion solely to overcome the inertia of the one at rest and might not have any motion left over to set the body at rest into motion, which is contrary to experience. Further, he claimed that the main point at issue in mechanics is establishing that mutual action is necessarily reaction; and he rejected the view that explaining the communication of motion in terms of the transfer of motion is no explanation at all and also amounts to admitting that accidents could be literally transferred from one substance to another. [7]  
Note:



1.       The main idea of the passage referred to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003, Kant's       Philosophy of Science http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=kant-science
2.      Ibid
3.      Ibid
4.      Ibid
5.      Ibid
6.      Ibid
7.      Ibid

8 comments:

  1. Ahmad Bahauddin
    16709251058
    PPs P.Mat C 2016

    Assalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.
    Kant menguraikan pengetahuan-pengetahuan kita menjadi dua unsur, yakni materi dan bentuk pengetahuan (formal). Ia meminjam dua kata tersebut dari Aristoteles, walaupun ia menggunakannya untuk makna yang berbeda. Materi pengetahuan adalah sensasi-sensasi yang dipindahkan oleh indera kepada kita dari alam fenomena dari setiap entitas. Sedangkan bentuk pengetahuan adalah ikatan-ikatan pemikiran yang memberikan otoritas bagi pembentukan sensasi-sensasi sekaligus membuat penilaian (hukum), karena posisi akal terhadap sensasi-sensasi tersebut bukan sebuah posisi negatif.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Kunny Kunhertanti
    16709251060
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika kelas C 2016

    Fitur konsepsi Kant tentang ilmu alam yang tepat yang paling terlihat adalah bagaimana membatasi itu. Hal ini membutuhkan kognisi
    (i) secara sistematis memerintahkan
    (ii) menurut prinsip-prinsip rasional dan
    (iii) diketahui apriori dengan pasti apodiktis, yakni dengan "kesadaran kebutuhan mereka" .
    Immanuel Kant mengidentifikasi kognisi rasional murni yang dihasilkan dari konsep dengan metafisika, berarti ilmu yang tepat membutuhkan metafisika alam.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Wahyu Berti Rahmantiwi
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016
    16709251045

    Kondisi apriori dimana kita bisa mengalami objek dalam ruang dan waktu. Setiap peristiwa pasti memiliki penyebab" tidak dapat dibuktikan dengan pengalaman, namun pengalaman tidak mungkin tanpa itu karena ini menggambarkan bagaimana pikiran harus selalu memesan representasinya. metode apriori atau posteriori, adalah kondisi yang diperlukan untuk mengetahui keberadaan seseorang. Keberadaan sendiri. apriori sintetik memberikan fondasi yang diperlukan untuk pengetahuan manusia. menerapkan konsep ruang dan waktu sebagai bentuk intuisi yang masuk akal adalah kondisi yang diperlukan untuk setiap persepsi

    ReplyDelete
  4. Uswatun Hasanah
    17701251022
    S2 PEP B 2017

    Pemahaman Kant terkait dengan science lebih mengarah kepada indrawi dan bagaimana kognisi dapat mempengaruhi tubuh dan jiwa seseorang. Melalui indrawi seseorang dapat belajar dan membaca hal-hal yang ada di sekitarnya. Kemudian, ulasan ini mengingatkan saya untuk terus bergerak dalam ruang dan waktu yang mana pada akhirnya kedua kondisi tersebut mampu menjawab sebab dan akibat dari tindakan yang telah dilakukan. Ibarat seseorang yang sudah berjuang saat menghadapi ujian tertentu, namun setelahnya akan ada hasil yang akan didapatkan. Hanya saja keduanya membutuhkan ruang dan waktu yang tepat. Kemudian, dalam pandangan Kant juga menekankan pada intuisi.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Angga Kristiyajati
    17709251001
    Pps UNY P.Mat A 2017

    Terima kasih Banyak Pak Prof. Marsigit.

    Science atau ilmu pengetahuan sepemahaman merupakan suatu hasil dari penyelidikan tentang pertanyaan yang timbul dari refleksi atas sains dan praktik ilmiah. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut antara lain: Apa yang membedakan metode sains? Apakah ada batasan yang jelas antara sains dan disiplin ilmu lainnya, dan di mana kita menempatkan pertanyaan seperti sejarah, ekonomi, atau sosiologi? Apakah teori ilmiah itu mungkin, atau hanya lebih dalam sifat dugaan sementara? Bisakah mereka diverifikasi, atau dipalsukan? Apa yang membedakan dari penjelasan yang baik dengan yang buruk? Mungkinkah ada suatu sains terpadu, yang mencakup semua ilmu khusus? Pada sebagian besar abad ke-20, pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini dikemukakan dalam kerangka berpikir yang sangat abstrak dan logis, karena diduga logika umum penemuan ilmiah atau pembenaran selalu dapat ditemukan. Namun, sekarang banyak yang tertarik dengan pendekatan historis, kontekstual, dan sosiologis, di mana metode dan keberhasilan sains pada waktu tertentu dianggap kurang dalam hal prinsip dan prosedur logika yang universal, dan lebih dalam hal metode dan paradigma yang ada, serta konteks sosialnya.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Alfiramita Hertanti
    17709251008
    S2- Pendidikan Matematika kelas A 2017

    Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb. Terima kasih atas tulisan yang sangat bernas ini, pak. Saya pernah mendengar perdebatan bahwa sains telah lepas dari filsafat yang cenderung spekulatif. Mereka yang mendukung pernyataan ini, tentunya berlandaskan pada anggapan bahwa filsafat sudah tidak mampu atau sudah tidak kontekstual dengan perkembangan zaman di era informasi dan teknologi digital tingkat tinggi. Sebagai orang awam, saya cenderung tidak setuju dengan pendapat tersebut, sebab setahu saya perkembangan sains saat ini juga tidak lepas dari evolusi-evolusi pemikiran dari masa ke masa. Sehingga, saya merasa aneh saja ketika sains dipisahkan dengan filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Dimas Candra Saputra, S.Pd.
    PPs PMA 2017
    17709251005

    Assalamualaikum prof,
    Kant menyempatkan dirinya untuk menulis tentang metafisika, logika, etika, dan sains alam. Dalam sains alam, sebenarnya Kant memberikan konstribusi yang besar khususnya membahas tentang fisika, astronomi, geologi, mekanik dan meteorology, namun ketika itu tidak banyak diketahui. Tentang mekanik, Kant fokus pada bagaimana mekanik mungkin untuk pengalaman zat sebagai penggerak, yaitu bagaimana satu zata mengkomunikasikan perubahannya pada yang lain dengan sumber penggerak tersebut. Kant kemudian berusaha untuk mengklarifikkasi bagaimana jumlah zat diestimasi sebelum dinyatakan. Ia menyatakan bahwa jumlah zat hanya dapat diestimasi dengan jumlah perubahan pada kecepacan yang diberikan. Ia juga menyatakan bahwa kita tidak dapat mengestimasi jumlah zat hanya dengan mempertimbangkan volumenya, karena beda zat dapat memiliki perbedaan berat jenis yang berbeda.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Tri Wulaningrum
    17701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Pemikiran Kant terkait dengan science dituangkan dalam beberapa poin. Selain ruang dan waktu, juga dijelaskan tentang adanya hukum sebab akibat dalam science. Di mana segala hal yang ada di dunia ini merupakan akibat dari suatu sebab, dan sebaliknya, segala hal yang ada di dunia ini bisa jadi merupakan sebab yang akan menghasilkan akibat. Pemahaman ruang dan waktu serta pemahaman perihal hukum sebab akibat membawa saya pada satu refleksi diri, yaitu untuk selalu cermat, teliti, dan berhati-hati dalam bertindak. Cermat dan cerdas, yaitu dalam mengambil sisi ruang dan waktu, serta teliti dan hati-hati dalam memilah tindakan yang akan diperbuat, karena tindakan yang telah kita lakukan tentu akan membawa akibat pada momen berikutnya.

    ReplyDelete