Nov 30, 2012

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist






Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms[*]
By Palmquist, S.P

 a posteriori: a way of gaining knowledge by appealing to some particular experience(s). This method is used to establish empirical and hypothetical truths.

 a priori: a way of gaining knowledge without appealing to any particular experience(s). This method is used to establish transcendental and logical truths.

 aesthetic: having to do with sense-perception. In the first Critique this word refers to space and time as the necessary conditions for sense-perception. The first half of the third Critique examines the subjective purposiveness in our perception of beautiful or sublime objects in order to construct a system of aesthetic judgment.

 analysis: division of a representation into two opposing representations, with a view towards clarifying the original representation. Philosophy as metaphysics employs analysis more than synthesis.

analytic: a statement or an item of knowledge which is true solely because of its conformity to some logical laws.

appearance: an object of experience, when viewed from the transcendental perspective. Though often used as a synonym for phenomenon, it technically refers to an object considered to be conditioned by space and time, but not by the categories

architectonic: the logical structure given by reason (especially through the use of twofold and threefold divisions), which the philosopher should use as a plan to organize the contents of any system.

autonomy: an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will). In the second Critique, moral action is defined as being au­tono­mous.

categorical imperative: a command which expresses a general, unavoid­able requirement of the moral law. Its three forms express the requirements of universalizability, respect and autonomy. Together they establish that an action is properly called 'morally good' only if (1) we can will all persons to do it, (2) it enables us to treat other persons as ends and not merely as the means to our own selfish ends, and (3) it allows us to see other persons as mutual law-makers in an ideal 'realm of ends'.

categories: the most general concepts, in terms of which every object must be viewed in order for it to become an object of empirical knowledge. The four main categories (quantity, quality, relation and modality) each have three sub-categories, forming a typical example of a twelvefold, architectonic pattern. 

concept: the active species of representation, by means of which our under­standing enables us to think. By requiring perceptions to conform to the categories, concepts serve as 'rules' allowing us to perceive general relations be­tween representations.

conscience: the faculty of the human subject which enforces the moral law in a particular way for each individual by providing an awareness of what is right and wrong in each situation.

constitutive: playing a fundamental role in making up some type of knowledge.

Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

Critical: Kant's lifelong approach to philosophy which distinguishes be­tween different perspectives and then uses such distinctions to settle otherwise unresolvable disputes. The Critical approach is not primarily negative, but is an attempt to adjudicate quarrels by showing the ways in which both sides have a measure of validity, once their perspective is properly understood. Kant's system of Critical philosophy emphasizes the importance of examin­ing the structure and limitations of reason itself.

Critique: to use the method of synthesis together with a critical approach to doing philosophy. This term appears in the titles of the three main books in Kant's Critical philosophy, which adopt the theoretical, practical and judicial standpoints, respectively. The purpose of Critical philosophy is to prepare a secure foundation for metaphysics.

disposition: the tendency a person has at a given point in time to act in one way or another (i.e., to obey the moral law or to disobey it).

duty: an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.

empirical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a posteriori. Most of the knowledge we gain through ordinary experience, or through science, is empirical. 'This table is brown' is a typical empirical statement.

experience: the combination of an intuition with a concept in the form of a judgment. 'Experience' in this 'mediate' sense is a synonym for 'empirical knowledge'. The phrase 'possible experience' refers to a representation which is presented to our sensibility through intuition, but is not yet known, because it has not been presented to our understanding through concepts. 'Experience' in this sense is 'immediate' and contrasts with 'knowledge'.

faculty: a fundamental power of human subjects to do something or perform some rational function.

faith: a rational attitude towards a potential object of knowledge which arises when we are subjectively certain it is true even though we are unable to gain theo­retical or objective certainty. By contrast, knowledge implies objective and subjective certainty, while opinion is the state of having neither objective nor subjective certainty. Kant encouraged a more humble approach to philoso­phy by claiming to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith-i.e., by dis­­tinguishing between what we can know empirically and what is transcen­dent, which we can approach only by means of faith.

formal: the active or subjective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the rational activity of the subject

heteronomy: an action which is determined by some outside influence (i.e., some force other than the freedom given by practical reason, such as inclina­tion) impelling the subject to act in a certain way. Such action is nonmoral (i.e., neither moral nor immoral).

hypothetical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a posteriori (though Kant him­self wrongly identified it as synthetic and a priori). Most metaphysical knowledge is properly viewed from this perspective, instead of from the spec­ulative perspective of traditional metaphysics. 'There is a God' is a typical hypothetical statement.

ideas: the species of representation which gives rise to metaphysical beliefs. Ideas are special concepts which arise out of our knowledge of the empirical world, yet seem to point beyond nature to some transcendent realm. The three most important metaphysical ideas are God, freedom and immortality.

imagination: the faculty responsible for forming concepts out of the 'manifold of intuition' and for synthesizing intuitions with concepts to form objects which are ready to be judged.

inclination: the faculty or object which motivates a person to act in a heteronomous way. Following inclinations is neither morally good nor morally bad, except when doing so directly prevents a person from acting ac­cording to duty-i.e., only when choosing to obey an inclination results in  disobedience to the moral law.

intelligible: presented to the subject without any material being provided by sensibility. It is more or less equivalent to the terms supersensible and transcendent.

intuition: the passive species of representation, by means of which our sen­sibility enables to have sensations. By requiring appearances to be given in space and time, intuitions allow us to perceive particular relations between representations, thereby limiting empirical knowledge to the sensible realm.

judgment: in the first Critique, the use of the understanding by which an object is determined to be empirically real, through a synthesis of intuitions and concepts. The third Critique examines the form of our feelings of pleasure and displeasure in order to construct a system based on the faculty of judg­ment (= the judicial standpoint) in its aesthetic and teleological manifesta­tions.

judicial: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to experi­ence-i.e., to what we feel, as opposed to what we know or desire to do. Judicial reason is virtually synonymous with 'Critique' itself, and is con­cerned with questions about the most profound ways in which we experience the world. Finding the source of two examples of such experiences is the task of the third Critique. 

knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.

logical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a priori. Hence it is concerned with nothing but the relationships between concepts. The law of noncontradiction (A is not -A) is the fundamental law of traditional, Aristotelian logic. (If we call this 'analytic' logic, then 'synthetic' logic would be based on the oppo­site law of 'contradiction' [A is -A].) 'All bachelors are unmarried' is a typical logical statement.

material: the passive or objective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the experience a subject has, or on the objects given in such an experience.

maxim: the material rule or principle used to guide a person in a particular situation about what to do (e.g., 'I should never tell a lie'). It thus provides a kind of bridge between a persons inner disposition and outer actions.

metaphysics: the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas. Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics. Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique.

moral law: the one 'fact' of practical reason, which is in every rational per­son, though some people are more aware of it than others. The moral law, in essence, is our knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and our in­ner conviction that we ought to do what is good.

noumenon: the name given to a thing when it is viewed as a transcendent object. The term 'negative noumenon' refers only to the recognition of some­thing which is not an object of sensible intuition, while 'positive noumenon' refers to the (quite mistaken) attempt to know such a thing as an empirical object. These two terms are sometimes used loosely as synonyms for 'transcendental object' and 'thing in itself', respectively. 

object: a general term for any 'thing' which is conditioned by the subject's representation, and so is capable of being known. The thing in itself is a thing which cannot become an object. 
objective: related more to the object or representation out of which knowl­edge is constructed than to the subject possessing the knowledge. Considered transcendentally, objective knowledge is less certain than subjective knowl­edge; considered empirically, objective knowledge is more certain.

perspective: a way of thinking about or considering something; or a set of assumptions from which an object can be viewed. Knowing which perspec­tive is assumed is important because the same question can have different an­swers if different perspectives are assumed. Kant himself does not use this word, but he uses a number of other expressions (such as standpoint, way of thinking, employment of understanding, etc.) in precisely this way. The main Critical perspectives are the transcendental, empirical, logical and hypothetical.

phenomenon: the object of knowledge, viewed empirically, in its fully knowable state (i.e., conditioned by space and time and the categories).

practical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to action -i.e., to what we desire to do as opposed to what we know or feel. Practical reason is a synonym for will; and these two terms are concerned with ques­tions of morality. Finding the sources of such action is the task of the second Critique.

predisposition: the natural tendency a person has, apart from (or before having) any experience, to be morally good or evil.

pure: not mixed with anything sensible. Although its proper opposite is 'impure', Kant normally opposes 'pure' to 'empirical'.

rational: grounded in the faculty of reason rather than in sensibility

reality: if regarded from the empirical perspective, this refers to the ordinary world of nature; if regarded from the transcendental perspective, it refers to the transcendent realm of the noumenon.

reason: in the first Critique, the highest faculty of the human subject, to which all other faculties are subordinated. It abstracts completely from the conditions of sensibility. The second Critique examines the form of our de­sires in order to construct a system based on the faculty of reason (= the prac­tical standpoint). Reason's primary function is practical; its theoretical func­tion, though often believed to be more important, should be viewed as having a secondary importance.

regulative: providing important guidelines for how knowledge should be used, yet not itself playing any fundamental role in making up that knowl­edge.

religion: the way of acting, or perspective, according to which we interpret all our duties as divine commands.

representation: the most general word for an object at any stage in its de­termination by the subject, or for the subjective act of forming the object at that level. The main types of representations are intuitions, concepts and ideas.

schematism: the function of the faculty of imagination, through which concepts and intuitions are combined, or synthesized, according to a rule (called a schema). In the first Critique, this function is presented as one of the steps required in order for the understanding to produce empirical knowledge.

sensibility: the faculty concerned with passively receiving objects. This is accomplished primarily in the form of physical and mental sensations (via 'outer sense' and 'inner sense', respectively). However, such sensations are possible only if the objects are intuited, and intuition depends on space and time existing in their pure form as well. 

sensible: presented to the subject by means of sensibility.

space and time: considered from the empirical perspective, they form the context in which objects interact outside of us; considered from the transcen­dental perspective, they are pure, so they exist inside of us as conditions of knowledge.

speculative: the illusory perspective which wrongly uses reason in a hope­less attempt to gain knowledge about something transcendent. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of theoretical.

standpoint: the special type of perspective which determines the point from which a whole system of perspectives is viewed. The main Critical stand­points are the theoretical, practical and judicial.

subject: a general term for any rational person who is capable of having knowledge

subjective: related more to the subject than to the object or representation out of which knowledge is constructed. Considered transcendentally, subjec­tive knowledge is more certain that objective knowledge; considered empiri­cally, subjective knowledge is less certain. 

summum bonum: Latin for highest good. This is the ultimate goal of the moral system presented in the second Critique; it involves the ideal distribu­tion of happiness in exact proportion to each person's virtue. In order to con­ceive of its possibility, we must postulate the existence of God and human immortality, thus giving these ideas practical reality.

supersensible: see intelligible and transcendent.

synthesis: integration of two opposing representations into one new repre­sentation, with a view towards constructing a new level of the object's real­ity. Philosophy as Critique employs synthesis more than analysis. On the operation of synthesis in the first Critique, see imagination.

synthetic: a statement or item of knowledge which is known to be true because of its connection with some intuition

system: a set of basic facts or arguments (called 'elements') arranged accord­ing to the order of their logical relationships, as determined by the architec­ton­ic patterns of reason. Kant's Critical philosophy is a System made up of three sub­ordinate systems, each defined by a distinct standpoint, and each made up of the same four perspectives.

teleological: having to do with purposes or ends. The second half of the third Critique examines the objective purposiveness in our perception of natural organisms in order to construct a system of teleological judgment.

theoretical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to cognition-i.e., to what we know as opposed to what we feel or desire to do. Theoretical reason is concerned with questions about our knowledge of the ordinary world (the world science seeks to understand). Finding the source of such knowledge is the task of the first

Critique, which would best be entitled the Critique of Pure 'Theoretical' Reason

thing in itself: an object considered transcendentally apart from all the conditions under which a subject can gain knowledge of it. Hence the thing in itself is, by definition, unknowable. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of noumenon.

time: see space and time.

transcendent: the realm of thought which lies beyond the boundary of pos­sible knowledge, because it consists of objects which cannot be presented to us in intuition-i.e., objects which we can never experience with our senses (sometimes called noumena). The closest we can get to gaining knowledge of the transcendent realm is to think about it by means of ideas. (The opposite of 'transcendent' is 'immanent'.)

transcendental: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a priori. It is a special type of philosophical knowledge, concerned with the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience. However, Kant believes all knowing subjects assume certain transcendental truths, whether or not they are aware of it. Transcendental knowledge defines the boundary between empirical knowledge and speculation about the transcendent realm. 'Every event has a cause' is a typical transcendental statement.

transcendental object: an object considered transcendentally insofar as it has been presented to a subject, but is not yet represented in any determined way-i.e., not yet influenced by space and time or by the categories.

understanding: in the first Critique, the faculty concerned with actively producing knowledge by means of concepts. This is quite similar to what is normally called the mind. It gives rise to the logical perspective, which en­ables us to compare concepts with each other, and to the empirical perspective (where it is also called judgment), which enables us to combine concepts with intuitions in order to produce empirical knowledge. The first Critique exam­ines the form of our cognitions in order to construct a system based on the faculty of understanding (= the theoretical standpoint).

will: the manifestation of reason in its practical form (see practical). The two German words, 'Willkür' and 'Wille' can both be translated in English as 'will'. Willkür refers to the faculty of choice, which for Kant is just one (empirical) function of the more fundamental faculty of practical reason (= Wille).




[*] Source: Palmquist, S.P., 2004, “Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms”. Retrieved 2004
               StevePq@hkbu.edu.hk>

27 comments:

  1. Sumandri
    16709251072
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika D 2016

    Terimakasih Prof, atas Glossary of Kant's Technical Termsnya, sangat bermanfaat apalagi bagi yang ingin mendalami filsafat. Yang dulunya saya tidak banyak mengetahui tentang istilah-istilah dalam filsafat, namun dengan adalanya Glossary ini saya bisa sedikit-demi sedikti mengetahui sitilah-istlah yang digunakan dalam filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Nama : Irna K.S.Blegur
    Nim : 16709251064
    kelas : PM D 2016(PPS)
    Dari paparan artikel yang bersumber dari Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms oleh Palmquist, S.P. ternyata banyak istilah dalam Filsafat ilmu yang baru saya ketahui.

    inclination, kecenderungan: fakultas atau obyek yang memotivasi seseorang untuk bertindak dengan cara heteronomous. Mengikuti kecenderungan ini tidak baik secara moral maupun secara moral buruk, kecuali ketika melakukan itu secara langsung mencegah seseorang dari bertindak sesuai dengan tugas-yaitu, hanya ketika memilih untuk mentaati sebuah hasil kecenderungan dalam ketidaktaatan pada hukum moral.

    Predisposisi: kecenderungan alami seseorang telah, terlepas dari (atau sebelum memiliki) pengalaman, secara moral baik atau jahat,
    dll

    Menurut Immanuel Kant, ruang dan waktu dapat dipertimbangkan dari perspektif empiris yaitu ruang dan waktu membentuk konteks di mana objek berinteraksi di luar kita, sedangkan jika dipertimbangkan dari perspektif transcendental ruang dan waktu adalah murni sehingga ada dalam diri kita sebagai kondisi pengetahuan.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Saepul Watan
    16709251057
    S2 P.Mat Kelas C 2016

    Bismilahir rahmaanir rahiim..
    Assalamualaikum wr..wb...

    Artikel ini memaparkan berbagai istilah-istilah dari Imanuel Kant yang sering digunakan dalam filsafat. Ada begitu banya istilah dengan pengertiannya masing-masing. Dengan paparan elegy berupa istilah filsafat secara lebih sederhana ini tentunya dapat memudahkan kita dalam memahami berbagai istilah dalam filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Wahyu Lestari
    16709251024
    PPs P.Matematika Kelas D

    Dari artikel di atas, A posteriori: cara mendapatkan pengetahuan dengan menarik beberapa pengalaman tertentu. Metode ini digunakan untuk membangun kebenaran empiris dan hipotetis. (Cf. a priori.)
    A priori: cara mendapatkan pengetahuan tanpa mementingkan pengalaman tertentu. Metode ini digunakan untuk membangun kebenaran transendental dan logis. (Cf. a posteriori.)
    Estetika: harus dilakukan dengan persepsi indra. Dalam Kritik pertama kata ini mengacu pada ruang dan waktu sebagai kondisi yang diperlukan untuk persepsi indra. Bagian pertama dari Kritik ketiga meneliti keefektifan subjektif dalam persepsi kita tentang objek indah atau agung untuk membangun sistem penilaian estetika. (Cf. teleologis.)
    Analisis: pembagian representasi menjadi dua representasi yang berlawanan, dengan pandangan untuk mengklarifikasi representasi asli. Filsafat sebagai metafisika menggunakan analisis lebih dari sekedar sintesis. (Sintesis Cf.)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Annisa Hasanah
    16709251051
    PPS Pendidikan Matematika C 2016

    Dalam tulisan ini telah dipaparkan makna-makna dari pemikiran Immanuel Kant, terimakasih Prof dari sini saya dapat menambah perbendaharaan kata-kata saya mengenai filsafat dari Immanuel Kant.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Nurwanti Adi Rahayu
    16709251067
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas D 2016

    Kant menyatakan bahwwa pengetahuan yang dihasilkan aliran rasionalisme tercermin dalam putusan yang bersifat analitik-Apriori.
    Putusan analitik-Apriori mengandung suatu kepastian dan berlaku umum.
    Sehingga paduan antara keduanya memadukan sesuatu yang pasti tidak perlu dibuktikan dan berlaku umum.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Yosepha Patricia Wua Laja
    16709251080
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika D 2016

    Banyaknya aliran dalam filsafat memberikan sebuah penjelasan mengenai makna kehidupan dan bagaimana seharusnya kita. Masalah-masalah yang kita hadapi dalam kehidupan merupakan masalah yang klasik, yang hingga sekarang susah untuk ditetapkan filsafat mana yang paling benar yang seharusnya kita pahami. Para filsuf tersebut menggunakan sudut pandang yang berbeda sehingga menghasilkan filsafat yang berbeda pula. Antara aliran atau paham yang satu dan yang lainnya ada yang saling bertentangan dan ada pula yang memiliki konsep dasar sama. Akan tetapi meskipun bertentangan, bukanlah untuk saling dipertentangkan. Justru dengan banyaknya aliran atau paham yang sudah diperkenalkan oleh tokoh-tokoh filsafat, kita dapat memilih cara yang tepat dengan dalam memandang dan memahami persoalan yang sedang kita hadapi secara filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Resvita Febrima
    16709251076
    P-Mat D 2016
    istilah dalam filsafat yang menarik perhatian saya yaitu: Summum bonum: berasal dari bahasa Latin untuk kebaikan tertinggi Inilah tujuan utama sistem moral yang disajikan dalam Kritik kedua; Ini melibatkan distribusi ideal kebahagiaan dalam proporsi yang tepat untuk kebajikan masing-masing orang. Untuk memahami kemungkinannya, kita harus mendalilkan keberadaan Tuhan dan keabadian manusia, sehingga memberi gagasan ini kenyataan praktis.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Dessy Rasihen
    16709251063
    S2 P.MAT D

    Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist diatas memberikan memberikan banyak defenisi tentang istilah-istilah dalam filsafat menurut Kant. Istilah-istilah ini terkait dengan ilmu, pengetahuan, pengalaman, konsep, ide dan lain sebagainya. Dari berbagai istilah yang ada ini ada baiknya jika kita mengkaji lebih dalam untuk menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Nurwanti Adi Rahayu
    16709251067
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas D 2016

    Kan menyatakan bahwa pengetahuan yang dihasilkan aliran empirisme tercermin dalam putusan Sintetik-Aposteriori .
    Putusan Sintetik-Aposteriori sifatnya tidak tetap, akal budi dan pengalaman indrawi dibutuhkan serentak.
    Cara untuk mendapatkan putusan Sintetik-Apriori ada pada tiga bidang yang harus dilalui berdasarkan panca indera, akal dan rasio.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Supriadi / 16709251048
    Kelas C 2016 Pendidikan matematika – S2

    Dari artikel di atas mengenai Glosarium Kant oleh Palmquist ada banyak istilah dalam filsafat, dalam sisi kehidupan, dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan, atau pun dalam bidang-bidang yang lain. Salah satu yang sering kita dengar atau baca adalah mengenai a priori dan a posteriori. Dalam aspek pengetahuan A priori dapat diartikan sebagai pengetahuan yang tidak didasarkan pada pengalaman, sedangkan a posteriori adalah pengetahuan yang didasarkan pada aspek pengalaman, jadi pengetahuan seseorang tidak hanya berdasarkan teori semata tetapi juga didukung oleh pengalaman-pengalaman yang relevan. Maka Immaneul Kant mengatakan bahwa pengetahuan atau ilmu yang baik tentunya dipengaruhi oleh rasio dan pengalaman atau sintetik apriori. Paham/ teori yang dikemukakan oleh Immanuel Kant ini menjadi penengah dari paham sebelumnya yaitu Rasionalism dan Emperism.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Lana Sugiarti
    16709251062
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika D 2016

    Terima kasih Bapak untuk glossary yang diberikan. Ini menambah wawasan saya tentang istilah yang belum saya ketahui. Dari yang telah diberikan di atas, saya dapat semakin memahami bahwa sintetis merupakan pernyataan atau item pengetahuan yang diketahui benar karena hubungannya dengan beberapa intuisi. Sehingga ketika berbicara tentang intuisi dapat dikaitkan dengan sintetis. Ternyata intuisi berkaitan erat dengan sintetis.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Primaningtyas Nur Arifah
    16709251042
    Pend. Matematika S2 kelas C 2016
    Assalamu’alaikum. Terimakasih Prof. Marsigit atas glossarynya. Menambah kosa kata dan wawasan saya tentang filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Ahmad Wafa Nizami
    16709251065
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika D

    Dari artikel ini didapatkan bahwa beberapa istilah yang sering sering muncul di dalam mempelajari filsafat sehingga hal ini sangat bermanfaat bagi yang ingin lebih mengenala filsafat karena istilah-istilah ini sangat sering muncul. Dimulai dari a priori sampai will.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Anwar Rifa’i
    PMAT C 2016 PPS
    16709251061

    Imanuel Kant adalah salah satu tokoh besar dalam dunia filsafat. Dari glosarium Kant yang ditampilkan dalam artikel ini, Kant membagi segala yang ada dan yang mungkin ada di dunia ini menjadi dua, yaitu di dalam pikiran dan di luar pikiran. Di dalam pikiran disebut dengan idealis, bersifat tetap, abstrak, rasionalism, identitas, kebenaran di dalam pikiran bersifat koherensi, analitik, a priori, dan tunggal. Di luar pikiran disebut dengan realisme memiliki sifat sebagai berikut: konkret, empirisme, kontradiksi, sintetik, a posteriori, plural, dan kebenaran realis bersifat korespondensi.

    ReplyDelete
  16. ARNY HADA INDA
    16709251079
    PPS-MAT D 2016
    Terima kasih Bapak untuk istilah-istilah filsafat yang diberikan. Ini menambah wawasan saya tentang istilah yang belum pernah saya ketahui sebelumnya. Istilah-istilah ini sangat berhubungan dengan ilmu, pengetahuan, pengalaman, konsep, ide dan lain-lain.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Cendekia Ad Dien
    16709251044
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016

    Artikel ini menyediakan glosarium atau daftar alfabetis dari istilah-istilah teknis beserta definisi yang bisa digunakan pembaca untuk memahami pemikiran-pemikiran atau maksud dari tulisan Kant. Istilah-istilah tersebut diantaranya a posteriori, a priori, estetika, analisis, analitik, penampakan, arkitektonik, autonomi, imperatif kategoris, kategori, konsep, dan lain sebagainya.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Syaifulloh Bakhri
    16709251049
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika C 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb.
    Dalam berfilsafat banyak ragam bahasa analog yang digunakan, untuk itu memahaminya perlu adanya hermeneutika seperti adanya daftar kata-kata (daftar istilah) yang digunakan oleh Immanuel Kant untuk menjelaskan sehingga segala sesuatunya jelas dan mudah dipahami.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Heni Lilia Dewi
    16709251054
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016.

    Glossary atau ringkasan yang dibuat oleh Palmquist ini memuat pengetahuan filsafat menurut salah satu Filsuf, yaitu oleh Immanuel Kant. Masih banyak pendapat filsuf lain mengenai filsafat. Tentu saja ini menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan kita tentang filsafat Kant. Terimakasih Prof. Marsigit yang sudi untuk berbagi glosarium ini. Semoga bermanfaat.

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  20. Windi Agustiar Basuki
    16709251055
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas C – 2016

    Sebagai filsuf modern yang paling berpengaruh tentunya Banyak istilah yang digunakan oleh Kant. Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist menyajikan istilah- istilah tersebut. Terimakasih Prof artikel ini, sangat bermanfaat!

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  21. Hajarul Masi Hanifatur Rohman
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika C 2016
    16709251052

    Bismillaah...
    Beberapa istilah di atas merupakan istilah-istilah yang terdapat dalam teori Immanuel Kant. Banyak sekali istilah yang sudah saya dengar atau saya pelajari selama mengikuti perkuliahan filsafat seperti a posteriori, a priori, aesthetic, analysis, analytic, empirical, intuition, dan lain sebagainya. Namun, masih banyak istilah yang juga baru pertama kali saya ketahui, seperti heteronomy, copernican revolution, categorical imperative. Dengan membaca postingan di atas, kita jadi mengetahui banyak tentang istilah-istilah asing.

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  22. Lihar Raudina Izzati
    16709251046
    P. Mat C 2016 PPs UNY

    Glosari ini sangat berguna untuk membantu memahami teori Kant. Kant dalam teorinya tentu menafaatkan istilah-istilah yang sudah ada sebelumnya, dia merujuk ke beberapa pendapat para filsuf. Kant berusaha untuk mengidentifikasi tesis dan anti tesis pendapat beberapa filsuf lalu mensintesiskannya menjadi teorinya atau filsafatnya sendiri.

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  23. Loviga Denny Pratama
    16709251075
    S2 P.Mat D

    Adanya glosarium istilah teknis yang sering dipakai oleh Kant ini sangat membantu dalam memahami istilah-istilah yang ada dalam tulisannya Immanuel Kant. Dimana istilah-istilah yang ada di atas masih asing bagi yang belum pernah belajar dan membaca mengenai tulisan Kant dan Filsafat pada umumnya.

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  24. Ahmad Bahauddin
    16709251058
    PPs P.Mat C 2016

    Assalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.
    Terimakasih banyak pak Marsigit. Tulisan ini sangat membantu saya memahami tulisan-tulisan bapak yang lain. Karena banyak istilah yang saya tidak mengerti. Sedangkan pengertian yang dituliskan oleh orang lain di sudut lain internet belum tentu sama maknanya dengan yang menjadi pandangan pak Marsigit.

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  25. Wahyu Berti Rahmantiwi
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C 2016
    16709251045

    Glosarium dari Immanuel Kant berisi istilah-istilah yang berada dalam ilmu filsafat. Glosarium ini sangat membantu kita untuk memahami makna yang ada dalam istilah yang sering digunakan dalam ilmu filsafat. Dan kita juga dapat menemukan kontradiksi dari beberapa pernyataan di atas. A priori merupakan cara untuk memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa mementingkan pengalaman tertentu atau pengalaman yang belum terkena oleh indra manusia sedangkan apostteriori merupakan cara untuk memperoleh pengetahuan dengan pengalaman yang sudah dimiliki oleh individu.

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  26. Kunny Kunhertanti
    16709251060
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika kelas C 2016

    Dalam artikel ini dipaparkan berbagai kata yang dikenalkan oleh Immanuel Kant, kata yang sering digunakan dalam filsafat. Dengan adanya glosarium ini saya merasa terbantu untuk lebih mengena istilah-istilah dalam filsafat.

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  27. Fatmawati
    16709251071
    PM.D 2016
    Istilah-istilah di atas merupakan istilah-istilah yang sering digunakan dalam filsafat. Dengan adanya glosarium di atas dapat membantu kami sebagai mahasiswa untuk lebih memahami maksud dari setiap istilah-istilah tersebut, sehingga tidak akan ada kesalahpahaman dalam mengartikan makna dari penggunaan istilah-istilah tersebut dalam tulisan filsafat.

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