Nov 30, 2012

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist






Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms[*]
By Palmquist, S.P

 a posteriori: a way of gaining knowledge by appealing to some particular experience(s). This method is used to establish empirical and hypothetical truths.

 a priori: a way of gaining knowledge without appealing to any particular experience(s). This method is used to establish transcendental and logical truths.

 aesthetic: having to do with sense-perception. In the first Critique this word refers to space and time as the necessary conditions for sense-perception. The first half of the third Critique examines the subjective purposiveness in our perception of beautiful or sublime objects in order to construct a system of aesthetic judgment.

 analysis: division of a representation into two opposing representations, with a view towards clarifying the original representation. Philosophy as metaphysics employs analysis more than synthesis.

analytic: a statement or an item of knowledge which is true solely because of its conformity to some logical laws.

appearance: an object of experience, when viewed from the transcendental perspective. Though often used as a synonym for phenomenon, it technically refers to an object considered to be conditioned by space and time, but not by the categories

architectonic: the logical structure given by reason (especially through the use of twofold and threefold divisions), which the philosopher should use as a plan to organize the contents of any system.

autonomy: an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will). In the second Critique, moral action is defined as being au­tono­mous.

categorical imperative: a command which expresses a general, unavoid­able requirement of the moral law. Its three forms express the requirements of universalizability, respect and autonomy. Together they establish that an action is properly called 'morally good' only if (1) we can will all persons to do it, (2) it enables us to treat other persons as ends and not merely as the means to our own selfish ends, and (3) it allows us to see other persons as mutual law-makers in an ideal 'realm of ends'.

categories: the most general concepts, in terms of which every object must be viewed in order for it to become an object of empirical knowledge. The four main categories (quantity, quality, relation and modality) each have three sub-categories, forming a typical example of a twelvefold, architectonic pattern. 

concept: the active species of representation, by means of which our under­standing enables us to think. By requiring perceptions to conform to the categories, concepts serve as 'rules' allowing us to perceive general relations be­tween representations.

conscience: the faculty of the human subject which enforces the moral law in a particular way for each individual by providing an awareness of what is right and wrong in each situation.

constitutive: playing a fundamental role in making up some type of knowledge.

Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

Critical: Kant's lifelong approach to philosophy which distinguishes be­tween different perspectives and then uses such distinctions to settle otherwise unresolvable disputes. The Critical approach is not primarily negative, but is an attempt to adjudicate quarrels by showing the ways in which both sides have a measure of validity, once their perspective is properly understood. Kant's system of Critical philosophy emphasizes the importance of examin­ing the structure and limitations of reason itself.

Critique: to use the method of synthesis together with a critical approach to doing philosophy. This term appears in the titles of the three main books in Kant's Critical philosophy, which adopt the theoretical, practical and judicial standpoints, respectively. The purpose of Critical philosophy is to prepare a secure foundation for metaphysics.

disposition: the tendency a person has at a given point in time to act in one way or another (i.e., to obey the moral law or to disobey it).

duty: an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.

empirical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a posteriori. Most of the knowledge we gain through ordinary experience, or through science, is empirical. 'This table is brown' is a typical empirical statement.

experience: the combination of an intuition with a concept in the form of a judgment. 'Experience' in this 'mediate' sense is a synonym for 'empirical knowledge'. The phrase 'possible experience' refers to a representation which is presented to our sensibility through intuition, but is not yet known, because it has not been presented to our understanding through concepts. 'Experience' in this sense is 'immediate' and contrasts with 'knowledge'.

faculty: a fundamental power of human subjects to do something or perform some rational function.

faith: a rational attitude towards a potential object of knowledge which arises when we are subjectively certain it is true even though we are unable to gain theo­retical or objective certainty. By contrast, knowledge implies objective and subjective certainty, while opinion is the state of having neither objective nor subjective certainty. Kant encouraged a more humble approach to philoso­phy by claiming to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith-i.e., by dis­­tinguishing between what we can know empirically and what is transcen­dent, which we can approach only by means of faith.

formal: the active or subjective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the rational activity of the subject

heteronomy: an action which is determined by some outside influence (i.e., some force other than the freedom given by practical reason, such as inclina­tion) impelling the subject to act in a certain way. Such action is nonmoral (i.e., neither moral nor immoral).

hypothetical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a posteriori (though Kant him­self wrongly identified it as synthetic and a priori). Most metaphysical knowledge is properly viewed from this perspective, instead of from the spec­ulative perspective of traditional metaphysics. 'There is a God' is a typical hypothetical statement.

ideas: the species of representation which gives rise to metaphysical beliefs. Ideas are special concepts which arise out of our knowledge of the empirical world, yet seem to point beyond nature to some transcendent realm. The three most important metaphysical ideas are God, freedom and immortality.

imagination: the faculty responsible for forming concepts out of the 'manifold of intuition' and for synthesizing intuitions with concepts to form objects which are ready to be judged.

inclination: the faculty or object which motivates a person to act in a heteronomous way. Following inclinations is neither morally good nor morally bad, except when doing so directly prevents a person from acting ac­cording to duty-i.e., only when choosing to obey an inclination results in  disobedience to the moral law.

intelligible: presented to the subject without any material being provided by sensibility. It is more or less equivalent to the terms supersensible and transcendent.

intuition: the passive species of representation, by means of which our sen­sibility enables to have sensations. By requiring appearances to be given in space and time, intuitions allow us to perceive particular relations between representations, thereby limiting empirical knowledge to the sensible realm.

judgment: in the first Critique, the use of the understanding by which an object is determined to be empirically real, through a synthesis of intuitions and concepts. The third Critique examines the form of our feelings of pleasure and displeasure in order to construct a system based on the faculty of judg­ment (= the judicial standpoint) in its aesthetic and teleological manifesta­tions.

judicial: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to experi­ence-i.e., to what we feel, as opposed to what we know or desire to do. Judicial reason is virtually synonymous with 'Critique' itself, and is con­cerned with questions about the most profound ways in which we experience the world. Finding the source of two examples of such experiences is the task of the third Critique. 

knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.

logical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a priori. Hence it is concerned with nothing but the relationships between concepts. The law of noncontradiction (A is not -A) is the fundamental law of traditional, Aristotelian logic. (If we call this 'analytic' logic, then 'synthetic' logic would be based on the oppo­site law of 'contradiction' [A is -A].) 'All bachelors are unmarried' is a typical logical statement.

material: the passive or objective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the experience a subject has, or on the objects given in such an experience.

maxim: the material rule or principle used to guide a person in a particular situation about what to do (e.g., 'I should never tell a lie'). It thus provides a kind of bridge between a persons inner disposition and outer actions.

metaphysics: the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas. Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics. Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique.

moral law: the one 'fact' of practical reason, which is in every rational per­son, though some people are more aware of it than others. The moral law, in essence, is our knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and our in­ner conviction that we ought to do what is good.

noumenon: the name given to a thing when it is viewed as a transcendent object. The term 'negative noumenon' refers only to the recognition of some­thing which is not an object of sensible intuition, while 'positive noumenon' refers to the (quite mistaken) attempt to know such a thing as an empirical object. These two terms are sometimes used loosely as synonyms for 'transcendental object' and 'thing in itself', respectively. 

object: a general term for any 'thing' which is conditioned by the subject's representation, and so is capable of being known. The thing in itself is a thing which cannot become an object. 
objective: related more to the object or representation out of which knowl­edge is constructed than to the subject possessing the knowledge. Considered transcendentally, objective knowledge is less certain than subjective knowl­edge; considered empirically, objective knowledge is more certain.

perspective: a way of thinking about or considering something; or a set of assumptions from which an object can be viewed. Knowing which perspec­tive is assumed is important because the same question can have different an­swers if different perspectives are assumed. Kant himself does not use this word, but he uses a number of other expressions (such as standpoint, way of thinking, employment of understanding, etc.) in precisely this way. The main Critical perspectives are the transcendental, empirical, logical and hypothetical.

phenomenon: the object of knowledge, viewed empirically, in its fully knowable state (i.e., conditioned by space and time and the categories).

practical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to action -i.e., to what we desire to do as opposed to what we know or feel. Practical reason is a synonym for will; and these two terms are concerned with ques­tions of morality. Finding the sources of such action is the task of the second Critique.

predisposition: the natural tendency a person has, apart from (or before having) any experience, to be morally good or evil.

pure: not mixed with anything sensible. Although its proper opposite is 'impure', Kant normally opposes 'pure' to 'empirical'.

rational: grounded in the faculty of reason rather than in sensibility

reality: if regarded from the empirical perspective, this refers to the ordinary world of nature; if regarded from the transcendental perspective, it refers to the transcendent realm of the noumenon.

reason: in the first Critique, the highest faculty of the human subject, to which all other faculties are subordinated. It abstracts completely from the conditions of sensibility. The second Critique examines the form of our de­sires in order to construct a system based on the faculty of reason (= the prac­tical standpoint). Reason's primary function is practical; its theoretical func­tion, though often believed to be more important, should be viewed as having a secondary importance.

regulative: providing important guidelines for how knowledge should be used, yet not itself playing any fundamental role in making up that knowl­edge.

religion: the way of acting, or perspective, according to which we interpret all our duties as divine commands.

representation: the most general word for an object at any stage in its de­termination by the subject, or for the subjective act of forming the object at that level. The main types of representations are intuitions, concepts and ideas.

schematism: the function of the faculty of imagination, through which concepts and intuitions are combined, or synthesized, according to a rule (called a schema). In the first Critique, this function is presented as one of the steps required in order for the understanding to produce empirical knowledge.

sensibility: the faculty concerned with passively receiving objects. This is accomplished primarily in the form of physical and mental sensations (via 'outer sense' and 'inner sense', respectively). However, such sensations are possible only if the objects are intuited, and intuition depends on space and time existing in their pure form as well. 

sensible: presented to the subject by means of sensibility.

space and time: considered from the empirical perspective, they form the context in which objects interact outside of us; considered from the transcen­dental perspective, they are pure, so they exist inside of us as conditions of knowledge.

speculative: the illusory perspective which wrongly uses reason in a hope­less attempt to gain knowledge about something transcendent. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of theoretical.

standpoint: the special type of perspective which determines the point from which a whole system of perspectives is viewed. The main Critical stand­points are the theoretical, practical and judicial.

subject: a general term for any rational person who is capable of having knowledge

subjective: related more to the subject than to the object or representation out of which knowledge is constructed. Considered transcendentally, subjec­tive knowledge is more certain that objective knowledge; considered empiri­cally, subjective knowledge is less certain. 

summum bonum: Latin for highest good. This is the ultimate goal of the moral system presented in the second Critique; it involves the ideal distribu­tion of happiness in exact proportion to each person's virtue. In order to con­ceive of its possibility, we must postulate the existence of God and human immortality, thus giving these ideas practical reality.

supersensible: see intelligible and transcendent.

synthesis: integration of two opposing representations into one new repre­sentation, with a view towards constructing a new level of the object's real­ity. Philosophy as Critique employs synthesis more than analysis. On the operation of synthesis in the first Critique, see imagination.

synthetic: a statement or item of knowledge which is known to be true because of its connection with some intuition

system: a set of basic facts or arguments (called 'elements') arranged accord­ing to the order of their logical relationships, as determined by the architec­ton­ic patterns of reason. Kant's Critical philosophy is a System made up of three sub­ordinate systems, each defined by a distinct standpoint, and each made up of the same four perspectives.

teleological: having to do with purposes or ends. The second half of the third Critique examines the objective purposiveness in our perception of natural organisms in order to construct a system of teleological judgment.

theoretical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to cognition-i.e., to what we know as opposed to what we feel or desire to do. Theoretical reason is concerned with questions about our knowledge of the ordinary world (the world science seeks to understand). Finding the source of such knowledge is the task of the first

Critique, which would best be entitled the Critique of Pure 'Theoretical' Reason

thing in itself: an object considered transcendentally apart from all the conditions under which a subject can gain knowledge of it. Hence the thing in itself is, by definition, unknowable. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of noumenon.

time: see space and time.

transcendent: the realm of thought which lies beyond the boundary of pos­sible knowledge, because it consists of objects which cannot be presented to us in intuition-i.e., objects which we can never experience with our senses (sometimes called noumena). The closest we can get to gaining knowledge of the transcendent realm is to think about it by means of ideas. (The opposite of 'transcendent' is 'immanent'.)

transcendental: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a priori. It is a special type of philosophical knowledge, concerned with the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience. However, Kant believes all knowing subjects assume certain transcendental truths, whether or not they are aware of it. Transcendental knowledge defines the boundary between empirical knowledge and speculation about the transcendent realm. 'Every event has a cause' is a typical transcendental statement.

transcendental object: an object considered transcendentally insofar as it has been presented to a subject, but is not yet represented in any determined way-i.e., not yet influenced by space and time or by the categories.

understanding: in the first Critique, the faculty concerned with actively producing knowledge by means of concepts. This is quite similar to what is normally called the mind. It gives rise to the logical perspective, which en­ables us to compare concepts with each other, and to the empirical perspective (where it is also called judgment), which enables us to combine concepts with intuitions in order to produce empirical knowledge. The first Critique exam­ines the form of our cognitions in order to construct a system based on the faculty of understanding (= the theoretical standpoint).

will: the manifestation of reason in its practical form (see practical). The two German words, 'Willkür' and 'Wille' can both be translated in English as 'will'. Willkür refers to the faculty of choice, which for Kant is just one (empirical) function of the more fundamental faculty of practical reason (= Wille).




[*] Source: Palmquist, S.P., 2004, “Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms”. Retrieved 2004
               StevePq@hkbu.edu.hk>

18 comments:

  1. Maghfirah
    17709251007
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika A 2017

    Assalamualaikum Warohmatullah Wabarokatuh
    Terima kasih Prof atas beberapa istilah dalam filsafat yang telah dijelaskan diatas. Jujur saja beberapa istilah diatas sangat asing bagi saya sebelum saya mengikuti perkuliahan filsafat. Namun setelah saya mengikuti perkuliahan filsafat ilmu oleh Prof Marsigit saya jadi memahami istilah istilah yang sebelumnya masih sangat asing bagi saya. Sekali lagi terima kasi Prof.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Kartika Pramudita
    17701251021
    PEP S2 B

    Pada bacaan tersebut terdapat istilah-istilah yang digunakan oleh Imanuel Kant. Dalam memperoleh pengetahuan, seseorang dapat memulainya dengan menggunakan indera. Dari indera tersebut seseorang dapat menghubungkan dengan pengalaman yang telah dimiliki dengan bantuan intuisi serta dengan mengkategorikannya ke dalam 4 kategori utama (kuantitas, kualitas, relasi dan modalitas) sehingga mampu untuk memberikan persepsi tentang segala sesuatu. Ilmu pengetahuan dapat berupa a priori maupun a posteriori. Selain itu, masih banyk istilah-istilah lain yang digunakan dalam memperoleh pengetahuan.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Terima kasih Prof atas istilah-istilah yang diberikan.Istilah-istilah yang sering digunakan oleh Immanuel Kant tersebut awalnya saya merasa asing saat mempelajari filsafat. Tetapi berkali-kali Prof Marsigit menjelaskan saat perkuliahan melalui tes jawab singkat dan penjelasannya seperti a posteriori, a priori, empirical, formal, intuition, metaphysics, noumenon, perspective, phenomenon, space and time, synthetic, teleological, transcendental, dan masih banyak lagi.

    Nama: Dian Andarwati
    NIM: 17709251063
    Kelas: Pendidikan Matematika (S2) Kelas C

    ReplyDelete
  4. Widuri Asmaranti
    17709251035
    S2 Pend Matematika B 2017

    Terimakasih Prof,
    Postingan ini berisi istilah istilah pada teknis Kant. Menyerupai kamus, namun kamus istilah mengenai istilah yang ada pada Kant. Istilah istilah ini penting untuk kita baca, oleh sebab itu kumpulan istilah di atas harus kita pelajari/pahami bersama. Inilah penting dari postingan bapak ini.
    Selain dari postingan ini, bapak Marsigit juga sering menyinggung istilah istilah ini dikelas. Inilah menariknya pembelajaran bapak, selain dikelas, kita juga diberi materi melewati postingan blog ini.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Mariana Ramelan
    17709251056
    S2 Pend. Matematika C 2017

    Glossary?... yaa pasti kita sering melihatnya dibeberapa buku halaman terakhir. Glossary merupakan kumpulan istilah yang digunakan dalam buku tersbut dan sama halnya pada artikel ini terdapat banyak istilah yang digunakan oleh Immanuel Kant. Beberapa istilah tersebut masih asing dalam kehidupan saya, namun dengan mempelajari filsafat ini yang awalnya saya sama sekali tidak tau menjadi tau. Beberapa istilah tersebut juga sering bapak jelaskan dalam perkuliahan filsafat ilmu. Beberapa istilah yang mulai familiar untuk saya seperti A posteriori, a priori,skematisme, transendental dan lainnya. Beberapa istilah tersebut juga sudah ada penjelasan lebih lanjut dalam blog ini, sehingga saya terfasilitasi untuk bisa belajar lebih. Terimakasih pak atas ilmu yang diberikan.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Arung Mega Ratna
    17709251049
    PPs PMC 2017


    Istilah-istilah yang disusun oleh Kant di atas sangat membantu dalam mempelajari filsafat. Sebaiknya sebelum mempelajari filsafat kita dikenalkan dengan istilah-istilah tersebut sebagai pengetahuan dasar agar tidak terjadi perbedaan pengertian. Barulah kemudian pengetahuan dasar tersebut diakamodasi dengan pengetahuan filsafat lainnya secara lebih luas dan mendalam.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Irham Baskoro
    17709251004
    S2|Pendidikan Matematika A 2017|UNY

    Terimakasih Prof atas daftar istilah-istilah yang diberikan. Saya sudah memahami sebagian besar istilah-istilah filsafat Imanuel kant di atas, karena secara khusus masing-masing telah diuraikan secara rinci dalam elegi-elegi pada postingan yang lain. Beberapa istilah juga sering diulang-ulang saat perkuliahan mata kuliah filsafat di gedung pascasarjana. Bahkan diantaranya juga sering dikeluarkan saat ujian isian singkat. Terimakasih Prof atas ilmu yang diberikan.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Trisylia Ida Pramesti
    17709251010
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2017
    FILSAFAT ILMU

    Filsafat memuat yang ada dan yang mungkin ada. Membahas segala aspek hidup, dan sering pula mendefinisikan suatu hal. Menggunakan suatu istilah pula. Dari tulisan di atas misalka. Immanuel Kant berusaha memahami dunia filsafat dengan beberapa istilah di atas. Istilah-istilah dalam filsafat memang bagi para pemula akan sulit dipahami, maka dengan adanya pengertian dari glossary Kant ini sangat bermanfaat untuk mempelajari filsafat lebih dalamnya. Dimana kata-kata di atas juga telah sering bapak jelaskan ketika di kelas sehingga kita memahaminya. Istilah-istilah yang perlu diketahui bagi calon pendidik dan pendidik. Terima kasih kepada Bapak atas ilmu yang diberikan.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Latifah Fitriasari
    17709251055
    PPs PM C

    Pada artikel yang bersumber dari Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms oleh Palmquist, S.P. ternyata banyak istilah dalam Filsafat ilmu yang baru saya ketahui. Seperti inclination dan Predisposisi.Menurut Immanuel Kant, ruang dan waktu dapat dipertimbangkan dari perspektif empiris dimana ruang dan waktu membentuk konteks di mana objek berinteraksi di luar kita, sedangkan apabila dipertimbangkan dari perspektif transcendental ruang dan waktu adalah murni sehingga ada dalam diri kita sebagai kondisi pengetahuan.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Rahma Dewi Indrayanti
    17709251038
    PPS Pendidikan Matematika Kelas B

    Dalam artikel diatas istilah-istilah yang digunakan dalam filsafat. Istilah tersebut berasal dari bahasa analog yang memang digunakan dalam berfilsafat. Bahasa analogi sendiri dipakai oleh teolog dan filsuf untuk menjelaskan konsep-konsep yang sulit dipahami. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa bahasa analogi juga menjadi suatu yang penting dan harus dipelajari.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Junianto
    PM C

    Saya mencoba memahami makna dari apriori dan aposteriori. A priori merupakan cara mendapatkna pengetahuan tanpa mementingkan pengalaman. Yang terpenting adalah bahwa pemikiran yang logis bisa mengandung kebenaran. Berbeda dengan a posteriori yang merupakan kebalikan dari a priori dimana dengan metode ini maka harus ada pengalaman yang dialami sebagai salah satu bukti empriris suatu pengetahuan. Kebenaran empiris dengan hipotesis awal menjadi hal mutlak jika akan menggunakan metode a posteriori.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Estetika secara sederhana bisa diartikan sebagai keindahan sebagaimana sudah diketahui umum. Karena berkaitan dengan keindahan maka persepsi indah atau tidak haruslah dilakukan oleh indera. Oleh karenanya penilaian ini sangatlah subjektif dari masing-masing individu karena merekan mempunyai standar estetika masing-masing. Kemudian mulai dikaji apakah dari persepsi subjektivitas itu diambil kesimpulan estetika suatu objek berdasarkan pengamatan masing-masing individu.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Nurika Miftahuljannah
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas C
    17709251060
    Assalamu'alaikum wr. wb.
    Dalam buku-buku, sering kita menjumpai glosarium yang ada di halaman belakang dari buku tersebut. Glosarium adalah daftar istilah dalam suatu ranah pengetahuan tertentu yang dilengkapi dengan definisi untuk istilah-istilah tersebut yang disusun secara alfabetis. Mencoba memahami glosarium Kant dari yang paling atas adalah a posteriori dan a priori. Kedua istilah ini sangat penting dalam dunia pendidikan. Kedua istilah tersebut juga memiliki makna yang saling bertolak belakang. A posteriori adalah cara untuk memperoleh pengetahuan dengan mementingkan pengalaman, sedangkan a priori adalah cara mendapatkan pengetahuan tanpa mementingkan pengalaman.
    Wassalamu'alaikum wr. wb.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Auliaul Fitrah Samsuddin
    17709251013
    PPs P.Mat A 2017
    Terima kasih atas postingannya, Prof. Glossary merupakan urutan secara abjad dari istilah atau kata dengan penjelasannya atau kamus kecil dari Kant. Glossary ini berisi istilah-istilah dalam filsafat yang beberapa diantaranya baru saya ketahui pada saat kuliah filsafat ilmu bersama Prof Marsigit. Sebelum membaca glossary ini, Prof Marsigit sudah memperkenalkan makna dari beberapa istilah yang ada di atas. Sehingga dengan membaca postingan ini, saya dapat mengkonfirmasi pengetahuan yang sebelumnya telah saya miliki.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Gina Sasmita Pratama
    17709251003
    S2 P.Mat A 2017

    Terimakasih Prof. atas postingannya.
    Glossary ini berisi isitilah-istilah dari Kant. Istilah-istilah yang familiar terdengar ialah mengenai a posteriori dan a priori. Seperti yang telah Prof. Marsigit jelaskan bahwa a posteriori merupakan cara mendapatkan pengetahuan dari beberapa pengalaman tertentu. Sedangkan a priori merupakan cara mendapatkan pengetahuan tanpa melalui pengalaman tertentu. Istilah-istilah ini tentu akan sangat membantu jika sudah dibaca sebelum perkuliahan filsafat, walaupun dibaca setelah perkuliahan, glossary ini dapat dijadikan bahan untuk mengkonfirmasi apa yang sudah Prof. Marsigit jelaskan sebelumnya.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Isoka Amanah Kurnia
    17709251051
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika 2017 Kelas C

    Dengan adanya glosari ini makan jika kita ingin membaca referensi pemikiran Immanuel Kant, maka kita dapat merujuk ke definisi-definisi yang telah disusun oleh Palmquist seperti pada artikel ini. Ini tentunya akan sangat membantu kita memahami setiap kalimat yang tertulis di dalam sumber tersebut. Istilah ini juga sering disebutkan oleh Prof Marsigit dalam elegi lainnya, sehingga alangkah baiknya sebelm mmembaca elegi-elegi kita harus memahami glosarium yang sering muncul dalam pembahasan.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Ramayanti Agustianingsih
    17709251045
    PPs PMat C 2017

    Assalamualaikum, wr.wb.
    Glosarium yang berisi kumpulan kata-kata kunci yang sangat sering muncul di dalam filsafat ini sangatlah bermanfaat bagi kami. Karena kami tidak akan bisa memahami 1 kalimat full dari Immanuel, sehingga yang diperlukan ketika mencoba memahami pemikiran Immanuel Kant adalah melalui kata-kata kunci ini. Oleh karena itu terima kasih banyak sekali Bapak.
    Wassalamualaikum, wr.wb.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Firman Indra Pamungkas
    17709251048
    Pend. Matematika S2 Kelas C

    Saya belajar mengenai kosakata-kosakata baru melalui glosari ini. Banyak hal yang sejujurnya baru saya mengerti sampai ketahapan formalnya saja. Sebagai contoh saya memahami apesteriori dan apriori sebagai suatu kesatuan pembelajaran. Proses pengalaman yang dialami sebelum dan sesudah proses belajar itu dilakukan. Apesteriori sebagai pengalaman sesudah dan apriori sebagai pengalaman sebelum. Manusia belajar dari apa yang terjadi dan yang sudah terjadi untuk membangun kehidupan di depannya. Manusia memiliki kemampuan untuk beradaptasi dan belajar untuk memilih mana yang baik dan buruk. Berdasarkan perkuliahan bersama Prof. Marsigit saya belajar untuk terus berpacu dan mengingat apa yang disebut pasrah dan ikhtiar. Pasrah itu berarti menerima takdir, apayang sudah terjadi. Sedangkan ikhtiar adalah posisi dimana kita berusaha dan mengusahakan apa yang belum terjadi

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