Nov 30, 2012

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms[*]
By Palmquist, S.P

 a posteriori: a way of gaining knowledge by appealing to some particular experience(s). This method is used to establish empirical and hypothetical truths.

 a priori: a way of gaining knowledge without appealing to any particular experience(s). This method is used to establish transcendental and logical truths.

 aesthetic: having to do with sense-perception. In the first Critique this word refers to space and time as the necessary conditions for sense-perception. The first half of the third Critique examines the subjective purposiveness in our perception of beautiful or sublime objects in order to construct a system of aesthetic judgment.

 analysis: division of a representation into two opposing representations, with a view towards clarifying the original representation. Philosophy as metaphysics employs analysis more than synthesis.

analytic: a statement or an item of knowledge which is true solely because of its conformity to some logical laws.

appearance: an object of experience, when viewed from the transcendental perspective. Though often used as a synonym for phenomenon, it technically refers to an object considered to be conditioned by space and time, but not by the categories

architectonic: the logical structure given by reason (especially through the use of twofold and threefold divisions), which the philosopher should use as a plan to organize the contents of any system.

autonomy: an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will). In the second Critique, moral action is defined as being au­tono­mous.

categorical imperative: a command which expresses a general, unavoid­able requirement of the moral law. Its three forms express the requirements of universalizability, respect and autonomy. Together they establish that an action is properly called 'morally good' only if (1) we can will all persons to do it, (2) it enables us to treat other persons as ends and not merely as the means to our own selfish ends, and (3) it allows us to see other persons as mutual law-makers in an ideal 'realm of ends'.

categories: the most general concepts, in terms of which every object must be viewed in order for it to become an object of empirical knowledge. The four main categories (quantity, quality, relation and modality) each have three sub-categories, forming a typical example of a twelvefold, architectonic pattern. 

concept: the active species of representation, by means of which our under­standing enables us to think. By requiring perceptions to conform to the categories, concepts serve as 'rules' allowing us to perceive general relations be­tween representations.

conscience: the faculty of the human subject which enforces the moral law in a particular way for each individual by providing an awareness of what is right and wrong in each situation.

constitutive: playing a fundamental role in making up some type of knowledge.

Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

Critical: Kant's lifelong approach to philosophy which distinguishes be­tween different perspectives and then uses such distinctions to settle otherwise unresolvable disputes. The Critical approach is not primarily negative, but is an attempt to adjudicate quarrels by showing the ways in which both sides have a measure of validity, once their perspective is properly understood. Kant's system of Critical philosophy emphasizes the importance of examin­ing the structure and limitations of reason itself.

Critique: to use the method of synthesis together with a critical approach to doing philosophy. This term appears in the titles of the three main books in Kant's Critical philosophy, which adopt the theoretical, practical and judicial standpoints, respectively. The purpose of Critical philosophy is to prepare a secure foundation for metaphysics.

disposition: the tendency a person has at a given point in time to act in one way or another (i.e., to obey the moral law or to disobey it).

duty: an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.

empirical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a posteriori. Most of the knowledge we gain through ordinary experience, or through science, is empirical. 'This table is brown' is a typical empirical statement.

experience: the combination of an intuition with a concept in the form of a judgment. 'Experience' in this 'mediate' sense is a synonym for 'empirical knowledge'. The phrase 'possible experience' refers to a representation which is presented to our sensibility through intuition, but is not yet known, because it has not been presented to our understanding through concepts. 'Experience' in this sense is 'immediate' and contrasts with 'knowledge'.

faculty: a fundamental power of human subjects to do something or perform some rational function.

faith: a rational attitude towards a potential object of knowledge which arises when we are subjectively certain it is true even though we are unable to gain theo­retical or objective certainty. By contrast, knowledge implies objective and subjective certainty, while opinion is the state of having neither objective nor subjective certainty. Kant encouraged a more humble approach to philoso­phy by claiming to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith-i.e., by dis­­tinguishing between what we can know empirically and what is transcen­dent, which we can approach only by means of faith.

formal: the active or subjective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the rational activity of the subject

heteronomy: an action which is determined by some outside influence (i.e., some force other than the freedom given by practical reason, such as inclina­tion) impelling the subject to act in a certain way. Such action is nonmoral (i.e., neither moral nor immoral).

hypothetical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a posteriori (though Kant him­self wrongly identified it as synthetic and a priori). Most metaphysical knowledge is properly viewed from this perspective, instead of from the spec­ulative perspective of traditional metaphysics. 'There is a God' is a typical hypothetical statement.

ideas: the species of representation which gives rise to metaphysical beliefs. Ideas are special concepts which arise out of our knowledge of the empirical world, yet seem to point beyond nature to some transcendent realm. The three most important metaphysical ideas are God, freedom and immortality.

imagination: the faculty responsible for forming concepts out of the 'manifold of intuition' and for synthesizing intuitions with concepts to form objects which are ready to be judged.

inclination: the faculty or object which motivates a person to act in a heteronomous way. Following inclinations is neither morally good nor morally bad, except when doing so directly prevents a person from acting ac­cording to duty-i.e., only when choosing to obey an inclination results in  disobedience to the moral law.

intelligible: presented to the subject without any material being provided by sensibility. It is more or less equivalent to the terms supersensible and transcendent.

intuition: the passive species of representation, by means of which our sen­sibility enables to have sensations. By requiring appearances to be given in space and time, intuitions allow us to perceive particular relations between representations, thereby limiting empirical knowledge to the sensible realm.

judgment: in the first Critique, the use of the understanding by which an object is determined to be empirically real, through a synthesis of intuitions and concepts. The third Critique examines the form of our feelings of pleasure and displeasure in order to construct a system based on the faculty of judg­ment (= the judicial standpoint) in its aesthetic and teleological manifesta­tions.

judicial: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to experi­ence-i.e., to what we feel, as opposed to what we know or desire to do. Judicial reason is virtually synonymous with 'Critique' itself, and is con­cerned with questions about the most profound ways in which we experience the world. Finding the source of two examples of such experiences is the task of the third Critique. 

knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.

logical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a priori. Hence it is concerned with nothing but the relationships between concepts. The law of noncontradiction (A is not -A) is the fundamental law of traditional, Aristotelian logic. (If we call this 'analytic' logic, then 'synthetic' logic would be based on the oppo­site law of 'contradiction' [A is -A].) 'All bachelors are unmarried' is a typical logical statement.

material: the passive or objective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the experience a subject has, or on the objects given in such an experience.

maxim: the material rule or principle used to guide a person in a particular situation about what to do (e.g., 'I should never tell a lie'). It thus provides a kind of bridge between a persons inner disposition and outer actions.

metaphysics: the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas. Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics. Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique.

moral law: the one 'fact' of practical reason, which is in every rational per­son, though some people are more aware of it than others. The moral law, in essence, is our knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and our in­ner conviction that we ought to do what is good.

noumenon: the name given to a thing when it is viewed as a transcendent object. The term 'negative noumenon' refers only to the recognition of some­thing which is not an object of sensible intuition, while 'positive noumenon' refers to the (quite mistaken) attempt to know such a thing as an empirical object. These two terms are sometimes used loosely as synonyms for 'transcendental object' and 'thing in itself', respectively. 

object: a general term for any 'thing' which is conditioned by the subject's representation, and so is capable of being known. The thing in itself is a thing which cannot become an object. 
objective: related more to the object or representation out of which knowl­edge is constructed than to the subject possessing the knowledge. Considered transcendentally, objective knowledge is less certain than subjective knowl­edge; considered empirically, objective knowledge is more certain.

perspective: a way of thinking about or considering something; or a set of assumptions from which an object can be viewed. Knowing which perspec­tive is assumed is important because the same question can have different an­swers if different perspectives are assumed. Kant himself does not use this word, but he uses a number of other expressions (such as standpoint, way of thinking, employment of understanding, etc.) in precisely this way. The main Critical perspectives are the transcendental, empirical, logical and hypothetical.

phenomenon: the object of knowledge, viewed empirically, in its fully knowable state (i.e., conditioned by space and time and the categories).

practical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to action -i.e., to what we desire to do as opposed to what we know or feel. Practical reason is a synonym for will; and these two terms are concerned with ques­tions of morality. Finding the sources of such action is the task of the second Critique.

predisposition: the natural tendency a person has, apart from (or before having) any experience, to be morally good or evil.

pure: not mixed with anything sensible. Although its proper opposite is 'impure', Kant normally opposes 'pure' to 'empirical'.

rational: grounded in the faculty of reason rather than in sensibility

reality: if regarded from the empirical perspective, this refers to the ordinary world of nature; if regarded from the transcendental perspective, it refers to the transcendent realm of the noumenon.

reason: in the first Critique, the highest faculty of the human subject, to which all other faculties are subordinated. It abstracts completely from the conditions of sensibility. The second Critique examines the form of our de­sires in order to construct a system based on the faculty of reason (= the prac­tical standpoint). Reason's primary function is practical; its theoretical func­tion, though often believed to be more important, should be viewed as having a secondary importance.

regulative: providing important guidelines for how knowledge should be used, yet not itself playing any fundamental role in making up that knowl­edge.

religion: the way of acting, or perspective, according to which we interpret all our duties as divine commands.

representation: the most general word for an object at any stage in its de­termination by the subject, or for the subjective act of forming the object at that level. The main types of representations are intuitions, concepts and ideas.

schematism: the function of the faculty of imagination, through which concepts and intuitions are combined, or synthesized, according to a rule (called a schema). In the first Critique, this function is presented as one of the steps required in order for the understanding to produce empirical knowledge.

sensibility: the faculty concerned with passively receiving objects. This is accomplished primarily in the form of physical and mental sensations (via 'outer sense' and 'inner sense', respectively). However, such sensations are possible only if the objects are intuited, and intuition depends on space and time existing in their pure form as well. 

sensible: presented to the subject by means of sensibility.

space and time: considered from the empirical perspective, they form the context in which objects interact outside of us; considered from the transcen­dental perspective, they are pure, so they exist inside of us as conditions of knowledge.

speculative: the illusory perspective which wrongly uses reason in a hope­less attempt to gain knowledge about something transcendent. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of theoretical.

standpoint: the special type of perspective which determines the point from which a whole system of perspectives is viewed. The main Critical stand­points are the theoretical, practical and judicial.

subject: a general term for any rational person who is capable of having knowledge

subjective: related more to the subject than to the object or representation out of which knowledge is constructed. Considered transcendentally, subjec­tive knowledge is more certain that objective knowledge; considered empiri­cally, subjective knowledge is less certain. 

summum bonum: Latin for highest good. This is the ultimate goal of the moral system presented in the second Critique; it involves the ideal distribu­tion of happiness in exact proportion to each person's virtue. In order to con­ceive of its possibility, we must postulate the existence of God and human immortality, thus giving these ideas practical reality.

supersensible: see intelligible and transcendent.

synthesis: integration of two opposing representations into one new repre­sentation, with a view towards constructing a new level of the object's real­ity. Philosophy as Critique employs synthesis more than analysis. On the operation of synthesis in the first Critique, see imagination.

synthetic: a statement or item of knowledge which is known to be true because of its connection with some intuition

system: a set of basic facts or arguments (called 'elements') arranged accord­ing to the order of their logical relationships, as determined by the architec­ton­ic patterns of reason. Kant's Critical philosophy is a System made up of three sub­ordinate systems, each defined by a distinct standpoint, and each made up of the same four perspectives.

teleological: having to do with purposes or ends. The second half of the third Critique examines the objective purposiveness in our perception of natural organisms in order to construct a system of teleological judgment.

theoretical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to cognition-i.e., to what we know as opposed to what we feel or desire to do. Theoretical reason is concerned with questions about our knowledge of the ordinary world (the world science seeks to understand). Finding the source of such knowledge is the task of the first

Critique, which would best be entitled the Critique of Pure 'Theoretical' Reason

thing in itself: an object considered transcendentally apart from all the conditions under which a subject can gain knowledge of it. Hence the thing in itself is, by definition, unknowable. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of noumenon.

time: see space and time.

transcendent: the realm of thought which lies beyond the boundary of pos­sible knowledge, because it consists of objects which cannot be presented to us in intuition-i.e., objects which we can never experience with our senses (sometimes called noumena). The closest we can get to gaining knowledge of the transcendent realm is to think about it by means of ideas. (The opposite of 'transcendent' is 'immanent'.)

transcendental: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a priori. It is a special type of philosophical knowledge, concerned with the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience. However, Kant believes all knowing subjects assume certain transcendental truths, whether or not they are aware of it. Transcendental knowledge defines the boundary between empirical knowledge and speculation about the transcendent realm. 'Every event has a cause' is a typical transcendental statement.

transcendental object: an object considered transcendentally insofar as it has been presented to a subject, but is not yet represented in any determined way-i.e., not yet influenced by space and time or by the categories.

understanding: in the first Critique, the faculty concerned with actively producing knowledge by means of concepts. This is quite similar to what is normally called the mind. It gives rise to the logical perspective, which en­ables us to compare concepts with each other, and to the empirical perspective (where it is also called judgment), which enables us to combine concepts with intuitions in order to produce empirical knowledge. The first Critique exam­ines the form of our cognitions in order to construct a system based on the faculty of understanding (= the theoretical standpoint).

will: the manifestation of reason in its practical form (see practical). The two German words, 'Willkür' and 'Wille' can both be translated in English as 'will'. Willkür refers to the faculty of choice, which for Kant is just one (empirical) function of the more fundamental faculty of practical reason (= Wille).

[*] Source: Palmquist, S.P., 2004, “Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms”. Retrieved 2004


    PEP S2 B

    a posteriori: cara memperoleh pengetahuan dengan menarik beberapa pengalaman tertentu (s). Metode ini digunakan untuk menetapkan kebenaran empiris dan hipotetis.
    a priori: cara memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa menarik bagi pengalaman tertentu (s). Metode ini digunakan untuk menetapkan kebenaran transendental dan logis.
    estetika: yang berkaitan dengan persepsi indrawi. Di Kritik pertama kata ini mengacu pada ruang dan waktu sebagai kondisi yang diperlukan untuk persepsi indrawi. Paruh pertama Kritik ketiga memeriksa kebermaksudan subjektif dalam persepsi kita tentang obyek yang indah atau luhur untuk membangun sistem penilaian estetika.
    Analisis: pembagian representasi menjadi dua representasi yang berlawanan, dengan pandangan terhadap mengklarifikasi representasi asli. Filsafat sebagai metafisika mempekerjakan analisis lebih dari sintesis.
    analitik: pernyataan atau item pengetahuan yang benar semata-mata karena sesuai untuk beberapa hukum yang logis.

  2. Aprisal
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    Assalamu Alaikum Wr.Wb

    Berdasarkan artikel di atas mengenai Glosarium Kant oleh Palmquist ada banyak istilah dalam filsafat, dalam sisi kehidupan, dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan, atau pun dalam bidang-bidang yang lain. Salah satu yang sering kita dengar atau baca adalah mengenai a priori dan a posteriori. Dalam aspek pengetahuan A priori dapat diartikan sebagai pengetahuan yang tidak didasarkan pada pengalaman, sedangkan a posteriori adalah pengetahuan yang didasarkan pada aspek pengalaman, jadi pengetahuan seseorang tidak hanya berdasarkan teori semata tetapi juga didukung oleh pengalaman-pengalaman yang relevan. Maka Immaneul Kant mengatakan bahwa pengetahuan atau ilmu yang baik tentunya dipengaruhi oleh rasio dan pengalaman atau sintetik apriori.

    Waalaikum salam wr.wb.

  3. Erlinda Rahma Dewi
    S2 PPs Pendidikan Matematika A 2016

    Imanuel Kant adalah salah satu tokoh besar dalam dunia filsafat. Dari glosarium Kant yang ditampilkan dalam artikel ini, Kant membagi segala yang ada dan yang mungkin ada di dunia ini menjadi dua, yaitu di dalam pikiran dan di luar pikiran. Di dalam pikiran disebut dengan idealis, bersifat tetap, abstrak, rasionalism, identitas, kebenaran di dalam pikiran bersifat koherensi, analitik, a priori, dan tunggal. Di luar pikiran disebut dengan realisme memiliki sifat sebagai berikut: konkret, empirisme, kontradiksi, sintetik, a posteriori, plural, dan kebenaran realis bersifat korespondensi.

  4. Konstantinus Denny Pareira Meke
    NIM. 16709251020
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    banyak istilah dalam Filsafat ilmu yang baru saya ketahui. Dan beberapa istilah lainnya ada beberapa yang telah diuraikan dalam perkuliahan. Menurut Immanuel Kant, ruang dan waktu dapat dipertimbangkan dari perspektif empiris yaitu ruang dan waktu membentuk konteks di mana objek berinteraksi di luar kita, sedangkan jika dipertimbangkan dari perspektif transcendental ruang dan waktu adalah murni sehingga ada dalam diri kita sebagai kondisi pengetahuan.

  5. Asri Fauzi
    Pend. Matematika S2 Kelas A 2016
    Dalam filsafat banyak kata-kata yang kita dengar terasa asing. Salah satu filsuf yang terkenal adalah imanuel kant, dalam filsafatnya banyak kita temukan kata-kata yang asing. Tetapi ada beberapa kata yang sering kita dengar tetapi tidak tau maknanya. Contohnya a priori dan a postrori. Dalam glossary yang di susun oleh Palmquist, a priori cara memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa menarik bagi pengalaman tertentu. Metode ini digunakan untuk menetapkan kebenaran transendental dan logis. Sedangkan a posteriori: cara memperoleh pengetahuan dengan menarik beberapa pengalaman tertent. Metode ini digunakan untuk menetapkan kebenaran empiris dan hipotetis.

  6. Andina Nurul Wahidah
    PEP-S2 Kelas B

    Glossary ini sangat membantu memahami istilah-sitilah penting yang ada pada Teori Pengetahuan Immanuel Kant, yang seringkali makna dari berbagai sumber bermacam-macam. Sehingga adanya glossary ini dapat menyatukan makna dari istilah-istilah tersebut.

  7. Devi Anggriyani
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Makna dari Istilah-istilah yang digunakan oleh Kant sangat membantu untuk memahami pemikiran Kant yang sangat sulit untuk dimengerti. Butuh waktu dan kebiasaan untuk memahami setiap katanya.

  8. Fatya Azizah
    Pendidikan Matematika B PPS UNY 2016

    dari artikel diatas bisa kita baca bersama bahwa pengertian ruang dan waktu terbgai menjadi dua pandangan. pertama jika dilihat dari segi empiris,ruang dan waktu merupakan sesuatu yang membentuk konteks di mana objek berinteraksi di luar kita. sedangkan jika dilihat dari segi transenden, ruang dan waktu itu murni, sehingga mereka ada dalam diri kita sebagai kondisi pengetahuan.

    PPS2016PEP B
    CONTRIBUTIONS OF KANT are significant, especially in the field of ethics and morality. I would say the most significant is the Categorical Imperative and the hierarchy of principles of ethical behavior (or that there exists a highest principles with other principles and decision making guidelines as logically consistent with the highest a priori principle. Kant is dense and it takes effort to distill it, well worth the effort.

  10. Fevi Rahmawati Suwanto
    PMat A / S2

    Istilah-istilah di atas sangat penting diketahui untuk memahami filsafat Kant berupa filsafat moral yang didasarkan pada rasionalitas. Pemahaman akan filsafat moral dalam kehidupan merupakan suatu kebutuhan, karena pada dasarnya filsafat ini bertujuan untuk mencari prinsip dasar metafisikan dan membangun prinsip moral dasar sebagai permintaan akan rasional masing-masing orang. Kontribusinya adalah kita dapat memikirkan suatu masalah secara mendalam dan kritis, membentuk argumen dalam bentuk lisan maupun tulisan secara sistematis dan kritis, mengkomunikasikan ide secara efektif, dan mampu berpikir secara logis dalam menangani masalah-masalah kehidupan yang selalu tak terduga.

  11. Nanang Ade Putra Yaman
    PPs PM B 2016

    Glossary diatas sangat membantu dalam memahami pemikiran Imanuel Kant. Kata-kata seperti Predisposition, supersensible agak sulit mencari referensi atau rujukannya. Mudah-mudahan glossary diatas dapat menambal pengetahuan kata-kata tentang pemikiran Kant dan mengembangkan pemahaman tentang pemikiran Kant.

  12. Siska Nur Rahmawati
    PEP-B 2016

    Terima kasih prof marsigit sudah membuatkan uraian tentang definisi-definisi operasional di dalam teori immanuel kant. Glosarium ini sangat membantu saya dalam mendalami kajian filsafat-filsafat ilmu.

  13. Dalam Filsafat, Imajinasi dan Intuisi merupakan bagian pengetahuan. Kedua hal ini kadang dianggap masyarakat umum sebagai "mengada-ada", tidak masuk akal dan sebagainya. Ternyata bahwa kedua hal ini adalah salah satu sumber lahirnya ide atau gagasan yang kelak menjadi ilmu pengetahuan. Sejarah ilmu membuktikan bahwa sebuah teori dapat berasal dari imajinasi yang pada awalnya dianggap "nyleneh". Ternyata, yang Nyleneh tai menjadi teori luar biasa dalam kehdupan manusia.

    Nur Tjahjono Suharto
    PEP S3 (A)

  14. Johanis Risambessy
    PPs PEP B 2016

    Immanuel Kant dengan kosakata yang kadang terdengar asing bagi kita. Tetapi melalui penjelasan di atas sekiranya dapat menambah pengetahuan yang baru didalam memamahi pikiran-pikiran Kant.

  15. Azwar Anwar
    Pendidikan Matematika S2 Kelas B 2016

    Istlah-istilah yang diprakarsai oleh Kant memang terdengar belum familiar, karena banyak istilah yang belum dipahami. Oleh karena perlu nya kita banyak mengkaji filsafat ilmu itu akan menambah pengetahuan sehingga kita mudah memahaminya, walaupun membutuhkan waktu yang tidak sebentar.

  16. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    PEP S2 B
    Glossary, menurut pengertian umum, berisi penjelasan konsep-konsep yang relevan dengan bidang ilmu atau kegiatan tertentu. glosarium terkait dengan ontologi. juga dapat dikatakan sebagai daftar bentuk abjad yang terangkum dalam buku, makalah, dll yang memiliki arti. dan kadang daftarnya sesuai urutan abjad biasanya juga sering ditemukan di akhir halaman. Secara khusus adalah sebuah pemahaman istilah istilah yang terkadang tidak dipahami, baik menurut sinonim ataupun antominnya.

  17. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    PEP S2 B

    Glossary sebagi alat memahami konsep, dimana diatas konsep dijelaskan sebagai representasi, dengan cara membuat pemahaman yang memungkinkan kita untuk berpikir. Dengan mengharuskan persepsi agar sesuai dengan kategori, konsep berfungsi sebagai aturan yang memungkinkan kita untuk melihat hubungan umum antara representasi.

  18. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    PEP S2 B

    Menurut penjelasan dan pemaparan diatas, glosari menurut kant yang ditulis oleh By Palmquist, S.P membuat pengetahuan baru mengenai istilah istilah pengetahuan yang dihasilkan dari pemikiran kant sebagai penjelas terhadap sintesis a priori dari ilmu pengetahuan.

  19. Fitri Ayu Ningtiyas
    S2 P.Mat B UNY 2016

    Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist diatas memberikan memberikan banyak defenisi tentang istilah-istilah dalam filsafat menurut Kant. Istilah-istilah ini terkait dengan ilmu, pengetahuan, pengalaman, konsep, ide dan lain sebagainya. Dari berbagai istilah yang ada ini ada baiknya jika kita mengkaji lebih dalam untuk menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan.

    S2 Pendidikan Matematika 2016 Kelas B

    Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

    Banyak istilah-istilah yang dipakai oleh Kant dalam mengungkapkan pendapatnya tentang filsafat, matematika, dan ilmu pengetahuan lainnya. Glosarium ini membantu untuk mengetahui definisi dari istilah-istilah tersebut.

    Wassalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

  21. Nira Arsoetar
    PPS UNY Pendidikan Matematika
    Kelas A

    Untuk belajar dan memahami filsafat memang diperlukan pemikiran yang mendalam sebab objek filsafat adalah meliputi segala yang ada dan yang mungkin ada dengan segala macam dimensinya. Berbagai macam kosakata di dalam filsafat memang terdengar asing bagi orang awam ataupun orang yang baru mulai mempelajarinya. Misalnya istilah apriori dan aposteriori. A priori adalah pengetahuan yang ada sebelum bertemu dengan pengalaman. Atau dengan kata lain, sebuah istilah yang dipakai untuk menjelaskan bahwa seseorang dapat berpikir dan memiliki asumsi tentang segala sesuatu, sebelum bertemu dengan pengalaman dan akhirnya mengambil kesimpulan. Sedangkan a posteriori adalah pengetahuan yang bergantung pada pengalaman. Argumen-argumen yang ada dalam a posteriori harus didasarkan pada bukti empiris. Dengan adanya arti dan penjelasan dari kosakata tersebut akan membantu banyak orang untuk dapat memahami apa arti dari kata tersebut.

  22. 16701251016
    PEP B S2

    Dalam berbagai buku pada bagian akhir serung muncul Glossary, atau yang banyaj dikenal adalah sebuah ringkasan substansi dari sebuah karya berupa buku yang berupa istilah yang digunakan. Penulisan Glossary ini adalah dengan maksud memepermudah pemahaman tentang istilah yang digunakan, karena memungkinkan istilah yang ada tersebut bagi sebagian orang adalah asing sehingga keberadaannya akan mempermudah pemahaman pembaca

  23. Berdasarkan artikel tersebut glosarium kant oleh palmquist kita banyak mengetahui istilah dalam filsafat dan sangat membantu dalam memahami istila- istilah penting seperti berikut:
    Posteriori: cara memperoleh pengetahuan dengan menarik beberapa pengalaman tertentu metode ini digunakan untuk membangun empiris dan hipotetis kebenaran. priori: cara memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa menarik bagi setiap tertentu pengalaman. Metode ini digunakan untuk membangun kebenaran transendental dan logis.

    M Saufi Rahman
    PEP KElas A

  24. Rospala Hanisah Yukti Sari
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A Tahun 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.
    dalam memahami sebuah filsafat, terkadang kita terkendala dengan istilah-istilah asing. Dengan glosarium yang telah dibuat, dapat menambah referensi dalam memahami istilah-istilah asing tersebut.

    Wassalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

  25. Bismillah
    Ratih Kartika
    PPS PEP B 2016


    Artikel diatas berisi isilah istilah yang sering dipakai oleh Immanuel Kant. Dalam hal ini istilah kefilsafatan seperti prori, sintetik, subjektif, empirical dan lain lain. Glosari ini sangat membantu bagi siapa saja yang ingin memahami filsafat secara ringkas. Yang menarik adalah apriori dan aposteriori yang mana aposteriori adalah cara memperoleh pengetahuan dengan menarik beberapa pengalaman tertentu.



    Menurut Kant, pengetahuan yang dihasilkan aliran rasionalisme tercermin dalam putusan yang bersifat analitik-Apriori. Putusan ini memang mengandung suatu kepastian dan berlaku umum. Sedangkan pengetahuan yang dihasilkan aliran empirisme tercermin dalam putusan Sintetik-Aposteriori . Yang sifatnya tidak tetap. Kant memadukan keduanya dalam suatu bentuk putusan yang Sintetik-Apriori. Di dalam putusan ini, akal budi dan pengalaman indrawi dibutuhkan serentak. Cara kita untuk mendapatkan putusan Sintetik-Apriori, menurut Kant ada pada tiga bidang yang harus dilalui berdasarkan panca indera, akal dan rasio.