Apr 16, 2013

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist





Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms[*]
By Palmquist, S.P

 a posteriori: a way of gaining knowledge by appealing to some particular experience(s). This method is used to establish empirical and hypothetical truths.


 a priori: a way of gaining knowledge without appealing to any particular experience(s). This method is used to establish transcendental and logical truths.

 aesthetic: having to do with sense-perception. In the first Critique this word refers to space and time as the necessary conditions for sense-perception. The first half of the third Critique examines the subjective purposiveness in our perception of beautiful or sublime objects in order to construct a system of aesthetic judgment.

 analysis: division of a representation into two opposing representations, with a view towards clarifying the original representation. Philosophy as metaphysics employs analysis more than synthesis.

analytic: a statement or an item of knowledge which is true solely because of its conformity to some logical laws.

appearance: an object of experience, when viewed from the transcendental perspective. Though often used as a synonym for phenomenon, it technically refers to an object considered to be conditioned by space and time, but not by the categories

architectonic: the logical structure given by reason (especially through the use of twofold and threefold divisions), which the philosopher should use as a plan to organize the contents of any system.

autonomy: an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will). In the second Critique, moral action is defined as being au­tono­mous.

categorical imperative: a command which expresses a general, unavoid­able requirement of the moral law. Its three forms express the requirements of universalizability, respect and autonomy. Together they establish that an action is properly called 'morally good' only if (1) we can will all persons to do it, (2) it enables us to treat other persons as ends and not merely as the means to our own selfish ends, and (3) it allows us to see other persons as mutual law-makers in an ideal 'realm of ends'.

categories: the most general concepts, in terms of which every object must be viewed in order for it to become an object of empirical knowledge. The four main categories (quantity, quality, relation and modality) each have three sub-categories, forming a typical example of a twelvefold, architectonic pattern. 

concept: the active species of representation, by means of which our under­standing enables us to think. By requiring perceptions to conform to the categories, concepts serve as 'rules' allowing us to perceive general relations be­tween representations.

conscience: the faculty of the human subject which enforces the moral law in a particular way for each individual by providing an awareness of what is right and wrong in each situation.

constitutive: playing a fundamental role in making up some type of knowledge.

Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

Critical: Kant's lifelong approach to philosophy which distinguishes be­tween different perspectives and then uses such distinctions to settle otherwise unresolvable disputes. The Critical approach is not primarily negative, but is an attempt to adjudicate quarrels by showing the ways in which both sides have a measure of validity, once their perspective is properly understood. Kant's system of Critical philosophy emphasizes the importance of examin­ing the structure and limitations of reason itself.

Critique: to use the method of synthesis together with a critical approach to doing philosophy. This term appears in the titles of the three main books in Kant's Critical philosophy, which adopt the theoretical, practical and judicial standpoints, respectively. The purpose of Critical philosophy is to prepare a secure foundation for metaphysics.

disposition: the tendency a person has at a given point in time to act in one way or another (i.e., to obey the moral law or to disobey it).

duty: an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.

empirical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a posteriori. Most of the knowledge we gain through ordinary experience, or through science, is empirical. 'This table is brown' is a typical empirical statement.

experience: the combination of an intuition with a concept in the form of a judgment. 'Experience' in this 'mediate' sense is a synonym for 'empirical knowledge'. The phrase 'possible experience' refers to a representation which is presented to our sensibility through intuition, but is not yet known, because it has not been presented to our understanding through concepts. 'Experience' in this sense is 'immediate' and contrasts with 'knowledge'.

faculty: a fundamental power of human subjects to do something or perform some rational function.

faith: a rational attitude towards a potential object of knowledge which arises when we are subjectively certain it is true even though we are unable to gain theo­retical or objective certainty. By contrast, knowledge implies objective and subjective certainty, while opinion is the state of having neither objective nor subjective certainty. Kant encouraged a more humble approach to philoso­phy by claiming to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith-i.e., by dis­­tinguishing between what we can know empirically and what is transcen­dent, which we can approach only by means of faith.

formal: the active or subjective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the rational activity of the subject

heteronomy: an action which is determined by some outside influence (i.e., some force other than the freedom given by practical reason, such as inclina­tion) impelling the subject to act in a certain way. Such action is nonmoral (i.e., neither moral nor immoral).

hypothetical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a posteriori (though Kant him­self wrongly identified it as synthetic and a priori). Most metaphysical knowledge is properly viewed from this perspective, instead of from the spec­ulative perspective of traditional metaphysics. 'There is a God' is a typical hypothetical statement.

ideas: the species of representation which gives rise to metaphysical beliefs. Ideas are special concepts which arise out of our knowledge of the empirical world, yet seem to point beyond nature to some transcendent realm. The three most important metaphysical ideas are God, freedom and immortality.

imagination: the faculty responsible for forming concepts out of the 'manifold of intuition' and for synthesizing intuitions with concepts to form objects which are ready to be judged.

inclination: the faculty or object which motivates a person to act in a heteronomous way. Following inclinations is neither morally good nor morally bad, except when doing so directly prevents a person from acting ac­cording to duty-i.e., only when choosing to obey an inclination results in  disobedience to the moral law.

intelligible: presented to the subject without any material being provided by sensibility. It is more or less equivalent to the terms supersensible and transcendent.

intuition: the passive species of representation, by means of which our sen­sibility enables to have sensations. By requiring appearances to be given in space and time, intuitions allow us to perceive particular relations between representations, thereby limiting empirical knowledge to the sensible realm.

judgment: in the first Critique, the use of the understanding by which an object is determined to be empirically real, through a synthesis of intuitions and concepts. The third Critique examines the form of our feelings of pleasure and displeasure in order to construct a system based on the faculty of judg­ment (= the judicial standpoint) in its aesthetic and teleological manifesta­tions.

judicial: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to experi­ence-i.e., to what we feel, as opposed to what we know or desire to do. Judicial reason is virtually synonymous with 'Critique' itself, and is con­cerned with questions about the most profound ways in which we experience the world. Finding the source of two examples of such experiences is the task of the third Critique. 

knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.

logical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a priori. Hence it is concerned with nothing but the relationships between concepts. The law of noncontradiction (A is not -A) is the fundamental law of traditional, Aristotelian logic. (If we call this 'analytic' logic, then 'synthetic' logic would be based on the oppo­site law of 'contradiction' [A is -A].) 'All bachelors are unmarried' is a typical logical statement.

material: the passive or objective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the experience a subject has, or on the objects given in such an experience.

maxim: the material rule or principle used to guide a person in a particular situation about what to do (e.g., 'I should never tell a lie'). It thus provides a kind of bridge between a persons inner disposition and outer actions.

metaphysics: the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas. Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics. Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique.

moral law: the one 'fact' of practical reason, which is in every rational per­son, though some people are more aware of it than others. The moral law, in essence, is our knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and our in­ner conviction that we ought to do what is good.

noumenon: the name given to a thing when it is viewed as a transcendent object. The term 'negative noumenon' refers only to the recognition of some­thing which is not an object of sensible intuition, while 'positive noumenon' refers to the (quite mistaken) attempt to know such a thing as an empirical object. These two terms are sometimes used loosely as synonyms for 'transcendental object' and 'thing in itself', respectively. 

object: a general term for any 'thing' which is conditioned by the subject's representation, and so is capable of being known. The thing in itself is a thing which cannot become an object. 
objective: related more to the object or representation out of which knowl­edge is constructed than to the subject possessing the knowledge. Considered transcendentally, objective knowledge is less certain than subjective knowl­edge; considered empirically, objective knowledge is more certain.

perspective: a way of thinking about or considering something; or a set of assumptions from which an object can be viewed. Knowing which perspec­tive is assumed is important because the same question can have different an­swers if different perspectives are assumed. Kant himself does not use this word, but he uses a number of other expressions (such as standpoint, way of thinking, employment of understanding, etc.) in precisely this way. The main Critical perspectives are the transcendental, empirical, logical and hypothetical.

phenomenon: the object of knowledge, viewed empirically, in its fully knowable state (i.e., conditioned by space and time and the categories).

practical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to action -i.e., to what we desire to do as opposed to what we know or feel. Practical reason is a synonym for will; and these two terms are concerned with ques­tions of morality. Finding the sources of such action is the task of the second Critique.

predisposition: the natural tendency a person has, apart from (or before having) any experience, to be morally good or evil.

pure: not mixed with anything sensible. Although its proper opposite is 'impure', Kant normally opposes 'pure' to 'empirical'.

rational: grounded in the faculty of reason rather than in sensibility

reality: if regarded from the empirical perspective, this refers to the ordinary world of nature; if regarded from the transcendental perspective, it refers to the transcendent realm of the noumenon.

reason: in the first Critique, the highest faculty of the human subject, to which all other faculties are subordinated. It abstracts completely from the conditions of sensibility. The second Critique examines the form of our de­sires in order to construct a system based on the faculty of reason (= the prac­tical standpoint). Reason's primary function is practical; its theoretical func­tion, though often believed to be more important, should be viewed as having a secondary importance.

regulative: providing important guidelines for how knowledge should be used, yet not itself playing any fundamental role in making up that knowl­edge.

religion: the way of acting, or perspective, according to which we interpret all our duties as divine commands.

representation: the most general word for an object at any stage in its de­termination by the subject, or for the subjective act of forming the object at that level. The main types of representations are intuitions, concepts and ideas.

schematism: the function of the faculty of imagination, through which concepts and intuitions are combined, or synthesized, according to a rule (called a schema). In the first Critique, this function is presented as one of the steps required in order for the understanding to produce empirical knowledge.

sensibility: the faculty concerned with passively receiving objects. This is accomplished primarily in the form of physical and mental sensations (via 'outer sense' and 'inner sense', respectively). However, such sensations are possible only if the objects are intuited, and intuition depends on space and time existing in their pure form as well. 

sensible: presented to the subject by means of sensibility.

space and time: considered from the empirical perspective, they form the context in which objects interact outside of us; considered from the transcen­dental perspective, they are pure, so they exist inside of us as conditions of knowledge.

speculative: the illusory perspective which wrongly uses reason in a hope­less attempt to gain knowledge about something transcendent. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of theoretical.

standpoint: the special type of perspective which determines the point from which a whole system of perspectives is viewed. The main Critical stand­points are the theoretical, practical and judicial.

subject: a general term for any rational person who is capable of having knowledge

subjective: related more to the subject than to the object or representation out of which knowledge is constructed. Considered transcendentally, subjec­tive knowledge is more certain that objective knowledge; considered empiri­cally, subjective knowledge is less certain. 

summum bonum: Latin for highest good. This is the ultimate goal of the moral system presented in the second Critique; it involves the ideal distribu­tion of happiness in exact proportion to each person's virtue. In order to con­ceive of its possibility, we must postulate the existence of God and human immortality, thus giving these ideas practical reality.

supersensible: see intelligible and transcendent.

synthesis: integration of two opposing representations into one new repre­sentation, with a view towards constructing a new level of the object's real­ity. Philosophy as Critique employs synthesis more than analysis. On the operation of synthesis in the first Critique, see imagination.

synthetic: a statement or item of knowledge which is known to be true because of its connection with some intuition

system: a set of basic facts or arguments (called 'elements') arranged accord­ing to the order of their logical relationships, as determined by the architec­ton­ic patterns of reason. Kant's Critical philosophy is a System made up of three sub­ordinate systems, each defined by a distinct standpoint, and each made up of the same four perspectives.

teleological: having to do with purposes or ends. The second half of the third Critique examines the objective purposiveness in our perception of natural organisms in order to construct a system of teleological judgment.

theoretical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to cognition-i.e., to what we know as opposed to what we feel or desire to do. Theoretical reason is concerned with questions about our knowledge of the ordinary world (the world science seeks to understand). Finding the source of such knowledge is the task of the first

Critique, which would best be entitled the Critique of Pure 'Theoretical' Reason

thing in itself: an object considered transcendentally apart from all the conditions under which a subject can gain knowledge of it. Hence the thing in itself is, by definition, unknowable. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of noumenon.

time: see space and time.

transcendent: the realm of thought which lies beyond the boundary of pos­sible knowledge, because it consists of objects which cannot be presented to us in intuition-i.e., objects which we can never experience with our senses (sometimes called noumena). The closest we can get to gaining knowledge of the transcendent realm is to think about it by means of ideas. (The opposite of 'transcendent' is 'immanent'.)

transcendental: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a priori. It is a special type of philosophical knowledge, concerned with the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience. However, Kant believes all knowing subjects assume certain transcendental truths, whether or not they are aware of it. Transcendental knowledge defines the boundary between empirical knowledge and speculation about the transcendent realm. 'Every event has a cause' is a typical transcendental statement.

transcendental object: an object considered transcendentally insofar as it has been presented to a subject, but is not yet represented in any determined way-i.e., not yet influenced by space and time or by the categories.

understanding: in the first Critique, the faculty concerned with actively producing knowledge by means of concepts. This is quite similar to what is normally called the mind. It gives rise to the logical perspective, which en­ables us to compare concepts with each other, and to the empirical perspective (where it is also called judgment), which enables us to combine concepts with intuitions in order to produce empirical knowledge. The first Critique exam­ines the form of our cognitions in order to construct a system based on the faculty of understanding (= the theoretical standpoint).

will: the manifestation of reason in its practical form (see practical). The two German words, 'Willkür' and 'Wille' can both be translated in English as 'will'. Willkür refers to the faculty of choice, which for Kant is just one (empirical) function of the more fundamental faculty of practical reason (= Wille).




[*] Source: Palmquist, S.P., 2004, “Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms”. Retrieved 2004
               StevePq@hkbu.edu.hk>

27 comments:

  1. Isoka Amanah Kurnia
    17709251051
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika 2017 Kelas C

    Terima kasih Pak atas kamus kecil dari kata-kata yang sering digunakan Immanuel Kant untuk mengekspresikan pikirannya, walaupun saya sedikit terlambat untuk membaca artikel ini. Alangkah baiknya jika saya sudah membaca ini lebih dahulu, karena istilah-istilah ini sering muncul pada elegi-elegi sebelumnya. Melihat definisi-definisi yang dituliskan, sepertinya kata-kata ini sering muncul pada buku Immanuel Kant "The Critique of Pure Reason". Hal yang menarik adalah pengertian dari Copernicus theory yang ternyata memiliki arti tersendiri dalam filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Terimakasih bapak atas sharing ilmunya tentang glossary dari kondisi teknikal Kant tentang a posteriori, a priori, aestetic, analysis, analytic, appearance, architectonic, autonomy, categorical imperative, categories, concept, conscience, constitutive, Copernican revolution, Critical, Critique, disposition, duty, empirical, experience, faculty, faith, formal, heteronomy, hypothetical, ideas, imagination, inclination, intelligible, intuition, judgment, judicial, knowledge, logical, material, dll. Semoga saya bisa semakin dekat dalam menggapai paham istilah-istilah diatas.


    Nama : Frenti Ambaranti
    NIM : 17709251034
    Kelas : S2 Pendidikan Matematika B

    ReplyDelete
  3. Nama : Mirza Ibdaur Rozien
    NIM : 17709251064
    Kelas : Pascasarjana Pendidikan Matematika C

    BISMILLAHIRROHMANIRROHIM
    From that glossarium, i found many new term in filsafat lesson. Here, many things i have just found when i reading this article. The terms here can be understood if we have study or read filsafat book or filsafat lesson. Because, if we haven’t study yet, it will confuse us. Because on this article so many terms we have to know. So i say thanks to Prof. Marsigit to make filsafat become more simple to be gone deep into.
    TAMMA BIHAMDILLAH

    ReplyDelete
  4. Arung Mega Ratna
    17709251049
    PPs PMC 2017


    Bacaan ini agaknya cukup susah dimengerti karena bahasa yang dipakai oleh kant tidak mudah dan merupakan terjemahan dari bahajerman asli dari immanuel kant.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Rahma Dewi Indrayanti
    17709251038
    PPS Pendidikan Matematika Kelas B

    Terimakasih atas sharingnya, Prof. Salah satu cara belajar filsafat adalah dengan mempelajari(memahami) pikiran para filsuf. Dengan membaca glossary di atas ada banyak tambahan istilah yang sebelumnya saya tidak tahu. Namun sepertinya, ada beberapa istilah yang dipaparkan bermakna lain jika digunakan dalam konteks yang berbeda. Saya jadi ingat, bahwa sesuatu hal pantas/cocok digunakan/diterapkan sesuai dengan kondisinya (ruang dan waktunya).

    ReplyDelete
  6. Irham Baskoro
    17709251004
    S2|Pendidikan Matematika A 2017|UNY

    Terimakasih Prof. atas beberapa istilah-istilah terkait dengan filsafat Imanuel Kant di atas. Saya telah memahami beberapa atau sebagian dari istilah tersebut, karena memang beberapa istilah tersebut telah banyak pula dijelaskan secara lebih khusus pada elegi-elegi yang lain. Selain itu Prof. juga sudah sering menjelaskan dan mengulang-ulang istilah tersebut pada setiap kali perkuliahan termasuk saat ujian isian singkat. Terimakaih Prof. atas ilmu yang diberikan selama ini.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Gina Sasmita Pratama
    17709251003
    S2 P.Mat A 2017

    Thank you very much Prof. for this post.
    I should have read this post from scratch to understand the terms of Kant where these terms are very often used in other posts. These terms like a posteriori, a priori, analytic, analysis, etc. Hopefully with this post, my understanding of philosophical terms will increase.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Luthfi Nur Azizah
    17709251002
    PPS P.Mat A

    Sebelumnya, terimakasih, atas ulasan yang Bapak sampaikan. Mempelajari filsafat berarti mempelajari pemikiran para filsuf. Salah satunya yaitu pemikiran Immanuel Kant. Istilah yang Bapal tuliskan di atas sedikit banyak memberikan gambaran tentang beberapa makna dibalik suatu kata. Namun terkadang pemikiran saya masih pada mengartikan makna yang sebenarnya dari suatu istilah tertentu. Sehingga menjadi tidak sinkron antara istilah dalam filsafat dan istilah dalam arti yang sebenarnya. Oleh karena itu penting bagi seseorang yang ingin mempelajari filsafat untuk mengenal lebih jauh istilah-istilah yang ada di dalamnya.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Arung Mega Ratna
    17709251049
    PPs PMC 2017


    Setelah membaca kembali artikel di atas, saya mencoba untuk sedikit memaparkan pemahaman sederhana saya. Istilah-istilah di atas sangat penting diketahui untuk memahami filsafat Kant berupa filsafat moral yang didasarkan pada rasionalitas. Pemahaman akan filsafat moral dalam kehidupan merupakan suatu kebutuhan, karena pada dasarnya filsafat ini bertujuan untuk mencari prinsip dasar metafisikan dan membangun prinsip moral dasar sebagai permintaan akan rasional masing-masing orang. Kontribusinya adalah kita dapat memikirkan suatu masalah secara mendalam dan kritis, membentuk argumen dalam bentuk lisan maupun tulisan secara sistematis dan kritis, mengkomunikasikan ide secara efektif, dan mampu berpikir secara logis dalam menangani masalah-masalah kehidupan yang selalu tak terduga.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Trisylia Ida Pramesti
    17709251010
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2017
    FILSAFAT ILMU

    Istilah-istilah dalam filsafat memang bagi para pemula akan sulit dipahami, maka dengan adanya pengertian dari glossary Kant ini sangat bermanfaat untuk mempelajari filsafat lebih dalamnya. Dimana kata-kata di atas juga telah sering bapak jelaskan ketika di kelas sehingga kita memahaminya. Istilah-istilah yang perlu diketahui bagi calon pendidik dan pendidik yaitu diantaranya aposteriori, a priori, aestetik, analisys, analitik, autonomy, konsep, kritikal, disposisi, pengalaman, formal, intuisi, pengetahuan, nomena, ruang dan waktu, sintesis, transendental. Terima kasih kepada Bapak atas ilmu yang diberikan.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Elsa Susanti
    17709251024
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika 2017 Kelas B

    Terimakasih pak atas sharing glosarium di atas. Defenisi-defenisi ini akan memudahkan kami dalam memahami filsafat. Mohon maaf juga pak, seharusnya saya membaca elegi ini lebih awal sehingga lebih mudah memahami pemikiran yang disampaikan Immanuel Kant. Namun tiada pula kata terlambat dalam mempelajari ini semua. Melalui glosarium ini akan membuat saya lebih memahami teori Kant.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Nama : Rosyita Anindyarini
    NIM : 17701251031
    Kelas : PEP B S2 2017

    Terimakasih prof. Marsigit atas postingan di atas. Dengan membaca postingan ini kami menjadi semakin tahu definisi formal berbagai istilah-istilah dalam filsafat yang sebenarnya tidak asing bagi kami, namun kami baru mengetahui makna atau artinya. Ini sangat membantu kami dalam membaca artikel-artikel lain yang bapak posting, sehingga kami semakin paham dengan filsafat melalui elegi-elegi yang bapak buat, terimakasih dan mohon bimbingannya selalu untuk kami. Wallahu’alam bishowab.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Vidiya Rachmawati
    17709251019
    PM A

    Glossary di atas seperti kamus yang mengartikan definisi dari istilah-istilah filsafat yang mungkin dirasa asing bagi mahasiswa atau orang awam yang baru mempelajari filsafat. Kamus ini dikembangkan menggunakan pendekatan filsafat sehingga pengartiannya pun dalam arti filsafat. Glossary ini sangat membantu para pembelajar awal ilmu filsafat untuk memahami secara ringkas tetapi menyeluruh. Selain itu, glossary tersebut memberikan paparan awal mengenai istilah dimana para pembelajar awal ilmu filsafat akan lebih tertarik membaca pemahaman lainnya untuk mengetahui aplikasinya dalam filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Putri Solekhah
    17709251006
    S2 Pend. Matematika A

    Assalamu'alaikum wr wb,

    Berbagai macam istilah dan penjelasan singkat dari Kant’s tersebut dapat menjadi tambahan ilmu bagi saya setelah membacanya. Salah satu istilah yang menarik bagi saya untuk diulas ialah tentang apriori dan aposteriori. Apriori artinya mempercayai sesuatu yang belum perna kita temui atau kita jumpai sebelumnya. Sedangkan aposteriori ialah belum bisa percaya akan suatu hala kalau belum melihat sendiri atau belum mengalaminya. Dalam diri seseorang kedua hal ini pasti terjadi. Contoh apriori ialah ketika kita meyakini bahwa yang mencipakan kita itu ialah Allah SWT sebagai tuhan yang maha Esa sekalipun kita belum perna melihat Allah SWT dengan mata kepala kita. Contoh aposteriori ialah ketika kita akan membeli handphone baru maka kita belum yakin atau percaya jika handphone itu bagus kalau belum melihat sendiri dan mencoba fiturnya. Semoga kita dapat menggunakan apriori dan aposteriori kita pada ruang dan waktunya.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Insan A N/PPs PmC 2017/17709251052
    Alhamdulillah, terimakasih prof atas daftar glosarium kata-kata I Kant, sangat membantu dalam memahami setiap kaimat yang menggunakan kata-kata tersebut. Pemanfaatan dari glossary ini sangat ditentukan oleh olah piker masing-masing, dalam proses terjemah dan menerjemahkan keadaan lingkungan. Ketajaman terjemah, kualitas terjeah, daya kritis terjemah semakin meningkat dengan menggunakan kata yang pas sesuai maksud pikiran

    ReplyDelete
  16. Insan A N/PPs PmC 2017/17709251052
    Selaras dengan glosarium tersebut, memahami dan memaknai satu kata ke kata yang lain juga membutuhkan olah piker yang dalam. Terkadang beberapa kata saling terhubung maknanya, karena hampir mirip dan membutuhkan ketelitian dalam memaknainya. Contoh terkait analisis dan analitik, secara arti sangat dekaat, namun memiliki makna yang berbeda jika digunakan dalam kalimat atau ungkapan filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Muh Wildanul Firdaus
    17709251047
    Pendidikan matematika S2 kls C

    Dalam artikel ini, dipaparkan mengenai kata-kata kunci yang sering muncul dalam pemikiran Kant, salah satunya adalah mengenai Critical yang merupakan Pendekatan yang dilakukan oleh Kant terhadap filsafat yang memiliki perspektif yang berbeda dan kemudian menggunakan perbedaan semacam itu untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan yang tidak dapat dipecahkan. Pendekatan Kritis tidak mengutamakan atau mencari kelemahan-kelemahan diantara perbedaan tersebut, namun merupakan upaya untuk mengadili pertengkaran dengan menunjukkan cara di mana kedua belah pihak memiliki ukuran validitas, sehingga perspektif mereka dipahami dengan benar. Sistem Kant tentang filsafat Kritis menekankan pentingnya memeriksa struktur dan keterbatasan akal itu sendiri.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Nur Dwi Laili Kurniawati
    17709251059
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika C

    Kamus ini sangat membantu kita untuk memahami makna dari berbagai kata yang sering dipakai Kant dalam pemikirannya. Meskipun beberapa kata sebenarnya tidak asing dengan kehidupan kita sehari-hari tetapi dengan kamus ini saya dapat melihat bahwa sebenarnya saya seringkali kurang memahami makna kata-kata sederhana yang sering saya pakai. Contohnya adalah pengalaman. Pengalaman merupakan kata yang sering saya pakai dan saya dengar tetapi baru ini saya mengetahui bahwa arti dari pengalaman merupakan kombinasi dari intuisi dengan sebuah konsep dalam bentuk keputusan.

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  19. Latifah Fitriasari
    17709251055
    PPs PM C

    Terima kasih telah menulis arti dari istilah istilah yang banyak digunakan dalam blog ini. Dari hal ini saya dapat mengetahui mengenai posteriori yang merupakan cara unutuk memperoleh suatu pengetahuan dari pengalaman. Apriori ialah cara memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa pengalaman yang menarik. Bebebarapa istilah ini saya bisa dapatkan dari blog ini dan ini sangat membantu.

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  20. Novita Ayu Dewanti
    17709251053
    S2 PMat C 2017

    Bismillah
    Dari daftar glosarium diatas merupakan daftar kosa kat yang terdapat dalam teori yang dikeluarkan oleh tokoh Immanuel kant. Salah satunya adalah pengetahuan. Pengetahuan dalam kosa kata tersebut diarti kan sebagai tujuan akhir dari pemahaman dalam menggabungkan intuisi dan konsep. Jika mereka murni, pengetahuannya akan bersifat transendental; Jika mereka tidak murni, pengetahuannya akan bersifat empiris. Dalam pengertian yang lebih longgar, 'pengetahuan' juga mengacu pada apa yang muncul dengan mengadopsi perspektif yang sah. Pengetahuan yang selalu kita cari merupakan pengetahu a yna gmemiliki tujuan akhir dari pemaham dalam menggabungkan intuisi dan kosnep yang telah kita miliki.

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  21. Metia Novianti
    17709251021
    PPs P.Mat A

    Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms yang dipaparkan pada postingan kali ini sangat membantu untuk lebih memahami definisi-definisi berkaitan dengan filsafat, terutama yang sering muncul di blog bapak ini. Ada beberapa kata yang memiliki perbedaan makna dengan yang biasa digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari, sehingga dengan adanya glosarium ini membantu kami agar tidak memahami filsafat dengan pemahaman yang menyimpang dengan maksud sebenarnya.

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  22. Muh Wildanul Firdaus
    17709251047
    PPs PMat C

    Muh Wildanul Firdaus
    17709251047
    PPs PMat C

    Dalam artikel ini, dipaparkan mengenai kata-kata kunci yang sering muncul dalam pemikiran Kant, salah satunya adalah mengenai Critical yang merupakan Pendekatan yang dilakukan oleh Kant terhadap filsafat yang memiliki perspektif yang berbeda dan kemudian menggunakan perbedaan semacam itu untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan yang tidak dapat dipecahkan. Pendekatan Kritis tidak mengutamakan atau mencari kelemahan-kelemahan diantara perbedaan tersebut, namun merupakan upaya untuk mengadili pertengkaran dengan menunjukkan cara di mana kedua belah pihak memiliki ukuran validitas, sehingga perspektif mereka dipahami dengan benar. Sistem Kant tentang filsafat Kritis menekankan pentingnya memeriksa struktur dan keterbatasan akal itu sendiri.

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  23. Fitri Ni'matul Maslahah
    17709251058
    PPs PM C

    Berbagai macam aliran filsafat memerlukan waktu yang tidak sedikit untuk memahaminya, bahkan dalam setiap aliran filsafat banyak kata-kata yang tidak familiar dalam kehidupan keseharian kita. Adanya glosarium ini amat membantu kami dalam memahami sepercik-percik mengenai Immanuel Kant, Wallahu a'lam

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  24. Fitri Ni'matul Maslahah
    17709251058
    PPs PM C

    Immanuel kant merupakan seorang filsuf yang menggunakan logika dan akal manusia dalam menetapkan suatu hukum di dunia ini. Beliau ini merupakan pendiri aliran rasionalisme dan empirisme yang menggeser paradigma berfikir menggunakan mitos semata, berdasarkan konsepsi yang dibangun oelh Kant, maka kita mengenal banyak istilah seperti yang telah dijabarkan di atas dalam ilmu pengetahuan, yakni pengetahuan harus dapat dibuktikan secara empiris dan bukan hanya sekedar common sense. Wallahu a'lam

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  25. Ramayanti Agustianingsih
    17709251045
    PPs PMat C 2017

    Assalamualaikum, wr.wb.
    Terima kasih Bapak karena telah membagikan kepada kami kata-kata kunci yang selalu ada di dalam filsafat ini beserta maknanya. Kami tidak akan bisa memahami pemikiran Immanuel Kant yang tertuang dalam bukunya jika hanya menerjemahkannya dari bahasa inggrisnya, karena seorang ahli pun memerlukan waktu yang sangat lama untuk memahami pemikiran Immanuel Kant. Maka bagi kami yang baru mengenal Immanuel Kant kata-kata kunci ini sangatlah berarti.
    Wassalamualaikum, wr.wb.

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  26. Aristiawan
    17701251025
    S2 PEP 2017 B

    Tulisan di blog ini sangat bermanfaat sekali. Dimana beberapa kosakata baru yang selama ini kami tidak pernah benar-benar paham maksudnya, disinggung dan diulas secara mendalam disini. Dengan memahami makna dari bahasa-bahasa yang dulunya mungkin masih asing bagi kami akan membantu kami dalam memahami elegi-elegi yang lain. Karena kami tidak perlu lagi membuat pemahaman sendiri, atau melakukan perkiraan untuk memahami maksud dari sebuah elegi.

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  27. Firman Indra Pamungkas
    17709251048
    Pend. Matematika S2 Kelas C

    Saya belajar mengenai kosakata-kosakata baru melalui glosari ini. Banyak hal yang sejujurnya baru saya mengerti sampai ketahapan formalnya saja. Sebagai contoh saya memahami apesteriori dan apriori sebagai suatu kesatuan pembelajaran. Proses pengalaman yang dialami sebelum dan sesudah proses belajar itu dilakukan. Apesteriori sebagai pengalaman sesudah dan apriori sebagai pengalaman sebelum. Manusia belajar dari apa yang terjadi dan yang sudah terjadi untuk membangun kehidupan di depannya. Manusia memiliki kemampuan untuk beradaptasi dan belajar untuk memilih mana yang baik dan buruk. Berdasarkan perkuliahan bersama Prof. Marsigit saya belajar untuk terus berpacu dan mengingat apa yang disebut pasrah dan ikhtiar. Pasrah itu berarti menerima takdir, apayang sudah terjadi. Sedangkan ikhtiar adalah posisi dimana kita berusaha dan mengusahakan apa yang belum terjadi

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