Apr 5, 2013

Elegi Menggapai "Ontological Foundation of Mathematics"




By Marsigit
Yogyakarta State University

Relating to ontological foundation of mathematics, Litlang (2002) views that in mathematical realism, sometimes called Platonism, the existence of a world of mathematical objects independent of humans is postulated; not our axioms, but the very real world of mathematical objects forms the foundation.

The obvious question, then, is: how do we access this world? Some modern theories in the philosophy of mathematics deny the existence of foundations in the original sense.

Some theories tend to focus on mathematical practices and aim to describe and analyze the actual working of mathematicians as a social group.

Others try to create a cognitive science of mathematics, focusing on human cognition as the origin of the reliability of mathematics when applied to the 'real world'.

These theories 1 would propose to find the foundations of mathematics only in human thought, not in any 'objective' outside construct, although it remains controversial.

Litlang indicates that although mathematics might seem the clearest and most certain kind of knowledge we possess, there are problems just as serious as those in any other branch of philosophy.

It is not easy to elaborate the nature of mathematics and in what sense do mathematics propositions have meaning?.

Plato 2 believes, in Forms or Ideas, that there are eternal capable of precise definition and independent of perception.

Plato includes, among such entities, numbers and the objects of geometry such as lines, points or circles which were apprehended not with the senses but with reason.

According to Plato 3, the mathematical objects deal with specific instances of ideal Forms.

Since the true propositions of mathematics 4 are true of the unchangeable relations between unchangeable objects, they are inevitably true, which means that mathematics discovers pre-existing truths out there rather than creates something from our mental predispositions; hence, mathematics dealt with truth and ultimate reality.

Litlang (2002) indicates that Aristotle disagreed with Plato. According to Aristotle, Forms were not entities remote from appearance but something that entered into objects of the world.

That we abstract mathematical object does not mean that these abstractions represent something remote and eternal. However, mathematics is simply reasoning about idealizations.

Aristotle 5 looks closely at the structure of mathematics, distinguishing logic, principles used to demonstrate theorems, definitions and hypotheses.

Litlang implies that while Leibniz brought together logic and mathematics, Aristotle uses propositions of the subject- predicate form.

Leibniz argues that the subject contains the predicate; therefore the truths of mathematical propositions are not based on eternal or idealized entities but based on their denial is logically impossible.

According to Leibniz 6, the truth of mathematics is not only of this world, or the world of eternal Forms, but also of all possible worlds.

Unlike Plato, Leibniz sees the importance of notation i.e. a symbolism of calculation, and became very important in the twentieth century mathematics viz. a method of forming and arranging characters and signs to represent the relationships between mathematical thoughts.

On the other hand, Kant 7 perceives that mathematical entities were a-priori synthetic propositions on which it provides the necessary conditions for objective experience.

According to Kant 8, mathematics is the description of space and time; mathematical concept requires only self-consistency, but the construction of such concepts involves space having a certain structure.

On the other hand, Frege, Russell and their followers 9 develop Leibniz's idea that mathematics is something logically undeniable.

Frege 10 uses general laws of logic plus definitions, formulating a symbolic notation for the reasoning required. Inevitably, through the long chains of reasoning, these symbols became less intuitively obvious, the transition being mediated by definitions.

Russell 11 sees the definitions as notational conveniences, mere steps in the argument. While Frege sees them as implying something worthy of careful thought, often presenting key mathematical concepts from new angles.

For Russell 12, the definitions had no objective existence; while for Frege, it is ambiguous due to he states that the definitions are logical objects which claim an existence equal to other mathematical entities.

Eves H. and Newsom C.V. write that the logistic thesis is that mathematics is a branch of logic.

All mathematical concepts are to be formulated in terms of logical concepts, and all theorems of mathematics are to be developed as theorems of logic.

The distinction between mathematics and logic 13 becomes merely one of practίcal convenience; the actual reduction of mathematical concepts to logical concepts is engaged in by Dedekind (1888) and Frege (1884-1903), and the statement of mathematical theorems by means of a logical symbolism as undertaken by Peano (1889-1908).

The logistic thesis arises naturally from the effort to push down the foundations of mathematics to as deep a level as possible. 14

Further, Eves H. and Newsom C.V. (1964) state:

The foundations of mathematics were established in the real number system, and were pushed back from the real number system to the natural number system, and thence into set theory. Since the theory of classes is an essential part of logic, the idea of reducing mathematics to logίc certainly suggests itself.

The logistic thesis is thus an attempted synthesization suggested why an important trend in the history of the application of the mathematical method.

Meanwhile, Litlangs determines that in geometry, logic is developed in two ways.

The 15 first is to use one-to-one correspondences between geometrical entities and numbers.

Lines, points, circle, etc. are matched with numbers or sets of numbers, and geometric relationships are matched with relationships between numbers.

The second is to avoid numbers altogether and define geometric entities partially but directly by their relationships to other geometric entities.

Litlangs comments that such definitions are logically disconnected from perceptual statements so that the dichotomy between pure and applied mathematics continues.

It is somewhat paralleling Plato's distinction between pure Forms and their earthly copies.

Accordingly, alternative self-consistent geometries can be developed, therefore, and one cannot say beforehand whether actuality is or is not Euclidean; moreover, the shortcomings of the logistic procedures remain, in geometry and in number theory.

Furthermore, Litlangs (2002) claims that there are mathematicians perceiving mathematics as the intuition of non-perceptual objects and constructions.

According to them, mathematics is introspectively self-evident and begins with an activity of the mind which moves on from one thing to another but keeps a memory of the first as the empty form of a common substratum of all such moves.

Next, he states:
Subsequently, such constructions have to be communicated so that they can be repeated clearly, succinctly and honestly. Intuitionist mathematics employs a special notation, and makes more restricted use of the law of the excluded middle viz. that something cannot be p' and not-p' at the same time. A postulate, for example, that the irrational number pi has an infinite number of unbroken sequences of a hundred zeros in its full expression would be conjectured as un-decidable rather than true or false. 16

The law of excluded middle, tertium non datur in Latin, states that for any proposition P, it is true that “P or not P”. For example, if P is “Joko is a man” then the inclusive disjunction “Joko is a man, or Joko is not a man” is true.

P not P P or not P
True False True
False True True


Litlangs (2002), further, adds that different writers perceive mathematics as simply what mathematicians do; for them, mathematics arises out of its practice, and must ultimately be a free creation of the human mind, not an exercise in logic or a discovery of preexisting fundamentals.

Mathematics 17 does tell us, as Kant points out, something about the physical world, but it is a physical world sensed and understood by human beings.

On the other hand 18, relativists remind that nature presents herself as an organic whole, with space, matter and time.

Humans have in the past analyzed nature, selected certain properties as the most important, forgotten that they were abstracted aspects of a whole, and regarded them thereafter as distinct entities; hence, for them, men have carried out mathematical reasoning independent of sense experience.

References:
1. Ibid
2Litlangs, 2002-2004, “Math Theory” Retrieved 2004
3 Ibid.
4 Ibid.
5 Ibid.
6 Ibid.
7 Eves, H and Newsom, C.V., 1964, “An Introduction to the Foundation & Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics”, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p.70
8 Ibid.p.70
9 Ibid.p.286
10 Litlangs, 2002-2004, “Math Theory” Retrieved 2004
11Ibid.
12Ibid.
13Eves, H and Newsom, C.V., 1964, “An Introduction to the Foundation & Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics”, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 286
14Ibid.p.286
15Litlangs, 2002-2004, “Math Theory” Retrieved 2004
16Ibid.
17Ibid.
18Eves, H and Newsom, C.V., 1964, “An Introduction to the Foundation & Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics”, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p.289
19Ibid.p. 290

9 comments:

  1. Fatmawati
    16709251071
    PM.D 2016
    Salah satu fondasi dari matematika adalah ontologi matematika. Ontologi merupakan salah satu cabang ilmu filsafat yang berhubungan dengan hakikat. Ontologi matematika berarti hakikat dari matematika itu sendiri seperti apa. Ontologi matematika mempersoalkan cakupan pernyataan matematik sebagai dunia yang nyata atau bukan.

    ReplyDelete
  2. SUMIATI
    16709251056_PMC 2016
    Pendidikan Matematika-S2

    Bismillaah...
    Terdapat berbagai pendapat mengenai matematika dari para ahli matematika. Mereka mengemukakan teori berdasarkan pendapat mereka masing-masing. Ontologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari realitas atau kenyataan konkret secara kritis, sifat menjadi, keberadaan, serta kategori dasar keberadaan dan hubungan mereka. Jadi untuk merealisasikan matematika dalam kegiatan sehari-hari siswa, guru harus membantu dan memfasilitasi siswa untuk menggapai ontologi matematika dengan mengembangkan konsep mereka dalam matematika.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Sehar Trihatun
    16709251043
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas C – 2016

    Berkaitan dengan dasar ontologis matematika, Litlang (2002) memandang bahwa dalam realisme matematis, kadang-kadang juga disebut Platonisme. Plato percaya, dalam bentuk atau gagasan, ada yang dapat mendefinisikan secara tepat dan independen terhadap persepsi. Plato mengungkapkan bahwa di antara entitas semacam itu, angka dan objek geometri seperti garis, titik atau lingkaran tidak ditangkap atau diterima melalui indera tetapi melalui penalaran atau akal. Objek matematika berhubungan dengan contoh-contoh Form ideal yang spesifik, hal ini dikarenakan proposisi sebenarnya dari matematika adalah benar dari hubungan yang tidak dapat diubah antara objek yang tidak dapat diubah, yang berarti bahwa matematika menemukan kebenaran yang sudah ada sebelumnya dan tidak menciptakan sesuatu dari kecenderungan mental manusia. Oleh karena itu, matematika berurusan dengan kebenaran dan realitas tertinggi.

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  4. Nama : Habibullah
    NIM : 17709251030
    Kelas : PM B (S2)

    Assalamualaikum wr.wb

    Pengertian paling umum pada ontology adalah bagian dari bidang filsafat yang mencoba mencari hakikat dari sesuatu. Pengertian ini menjadi luas dan ditelaah berdasarkan ruang lingkup aspek-aspek keilmuan tersendiri. Pemaknaan ontology menjadi sangat bervariasi dan dinamis sesuai dengan bergulirnya waktu. Ontologi memberikan pengertian untuk menjelasan secara eksplisit dari konsep terhadap representasi pengetahuan pada sebuah dasar pengetahuan. Dengan demikian Ontologi penelitian merupakan suatu teori tentang makna dari suatu objek, property dari suatu objek, serta relasi objek tersebut yang mungkin terjadi pada suatu domain pengetahuan. Ringkasnya, pada tinjauan filsafat ontologi adalah memikirkan tentang sesuatu yang konkret atau ada.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Angga Kristiyajati
    17709251001
    Pps UNY P.Mat A 2017

    Terima kasih Banyak Pak Prof. Marsigit.

    Yang kami pahami dari elegi ini adalah mengenai ontologi dari dasar matematika. Dalam pemahaman kami, ontologi adalah proses untuk memahami/mengetahui hakekat akan keberadaan sesuatu, maka pada elegi ini adalah memberikan informasi pada kami mengenai hakekat dari dasar matematika itu sendiri. Awal mulanya dasar dari matematika adalah fenomena alam, dimana menurut Plato pada dunia terdapat objek-objek matematika yang bisa dijadikan suatu postulat. Dalam perkembangannya ternyata yang menjadi dasar dari matematika adalah logika dan idealisasi dimana juga dituntut juga pemahaman akan simbol-simbol matematika.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Dimas Candra Saputra
    PPs PMA 2017
    17709251005

    Assalamualaikum prof,
    Landasan matematika secara ontologi berarti landasan matematika berdasarkan hakikatnya. Terdapat banyak berbagai macam pendapat tentang hakikat matematika dari para ahli. Berdasarkan elegi ini, hakekat matematika ialah matematika realisme, yaitu bahwa matematika bukanlah aksioma tetapi matematika ialah ada di dalam dunia nyata. Namun yang menjadi permasalahan selanjutnya ialah bagaimana dapat mengakses dunia ini. Terdapat berbagai macam pendapat tentang hal tersebut seperti yang diuraikan dalam elegi ini.

    ReplyDelete
  7. I Nyoman Indhi Wiradika
    17701251023
    PEP B

    Terima kasih atas eleginya prof, membedah matematika secara ontologi berarti membedah secara dalam, yaitu tentang ‘ada’. Dimulai dari Plato yang mengungkapkan bahwa Ide tidak tergantung pada pemikiran manusia, melainkan pikiran manusia yang tergantung pada ide. Sedangkan Aristoteles menekankan menemukan dunia ide yang permanen dan merupakan realita daripada abstraksi dari apa yang tampak. Dalam perjalananya, matematika bukanlah sekedar latihan-latihan logika atas penemuan dasar yang telah ada, namu menjadi ciptaan bebas atas pemikiran manusia.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Nama: Hendrawansyah
    NIM: 17701251030
    S2 PEP 2017 Kelas B

    Assalamualaikum wr wb

    Dalam elegi menggapai ontologi matematika saya melihat beragam pendapat yang diutarakan oleh parah ahli.Salah satu pendapat yang menarik perhatian saya yaitu pendapatnya Khant yang mengatakan bahwa entitas matematika bersifat sintetis apriori yang menyediakan keaadan untuk pengalaman yang obyektif.Memahami sedikit dari teorinya Khant saya dapat berasumsi bahwa di dalam memahami matematika seharusnya memberikan kebebasan untuk mengembarakan pikiran dengan tidak membatasinya dengan konsep sehingga nilai kebenaran dari matematika dapat dinilai secara obyektif dengan tidak menitik beratkannya hanya pada satu sisi.

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  9. Rahma Hayati
    17709251016
    Pascasarjana PM A 2017

    Assalamualaikum wr.wb

    Dari tulisan ini, saya memahami tentang ontologi dalam matematika. Ontologi pada dasarnya adalah suatu studi tentang hakekat realitas yang mempelajari suatu yang terdapat pada kenyataan dan berdasarkan kepada logika yang ada. Maka jika dikaitkan dengan elegi ini, ontologi dari matematika merupakan hakekat dasar dari matematika itu sendiri. Dimana, secara ontologis matematika dipandang dalam realisme matematis bukan sebagai aksioma melainkan sebagai objek dari dunia nyata. Terdapat beberapa teori yang membahas tentang ontologi dari filsafat matematika seperti yang dijelaskan pada tulisan diatas.

    ReplyDelete