Apr 16, 2013

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms_By Palmquist





Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms[*]
By Palmquist, S.P

 a posteriori: a way of gaining knowledge by appealing to some particular experience(s). This method is used to establish empirical and hypothetical truths.


 a priori: a way of gaining knowledge without appealing to any particular experience(s). This method is used to establish transcendental and logical truths.

 aesthetic: having to do with sense-perception. In the first Critique this word refers to space and time as the necessary conditions for sense-perception. The first half of the third Critique examines the subjective purposiveness in our perception of beautiful or sublime objects in order to construct a system of aesthetic judgment.

 analysis: division of a representation into two opposing representations, with a view towards clarifying the original representation. Philosophy as metaphysics employs analysis more than synthesis.

analytic: a statement or an item of knowledge which is true solely because of its conformity to some logical laws.

appearance: an object of experience, when viewed from the transcendental perspective. Though often used as a synonym for phenomenon, it technically refers to an object considered to be conditioned by space and time, but not by the categories

architectonic: the logical structure given by reason (especially through the use of twofold and threefold divisions), which the philosopher should use as a plan to organize the contents of any system.

autonomy: an action which is determined by the subject's own free choice (see will). In the second Critique, moral action is defined as being au­tono­mous.

categorical imperative: a command which expresses a general, unavoid­able requirement of the moral law. Its three forms express the requirements of universalizability, respect and autonomy. Together they establish that an action is properly called 'morally good' only if (1) we can will all persons to do it, (2) it enables us to treat other persons as ends and not merely as the means to our own selfish ends, and (3) it allows us to see other persons as mutual law-makers in an ideal 'realm of ends'.

categories: the most general concepts, in terms of which every object must be viewed in order for it to become an object of empirical knowledge. The four main categories (quantity, quality, relation and modality) each have three sub-categories, forming a typical example of a twelvefold, architectonic pattern. 

concept: the active species of representation, by means of which our under­standing enables us to think. By requiring perceptions to conform to the categories, concepts serve as 'rules' allowing us to perceive general relations be­tween representations.

conscience: the faculty of the human subject which enforces the moral law in a particular way for each individual by providing an awareness of what is right and wrong in each situation.

constitutive: playing a fundamental role in making up some type of knowledge.

Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

Critical: Kant's lifelong approach to philosophy which distinguishes be­tween different perspectives and then uses such distinctions to settle otherwise unresolvable disputes. The Critical approach is not primarily negative, but is an attempt to adjudicate quarrels by showing the ways in which both sides have a measure of validity, once their perspective is properly understood. Kant's system of Critical philosophy emphasizes the importance of examin­ing the structure and limitations of reason itself.

Critique: to use the method of synthesis together with a critical approach to doing philosophy. This term appears in the titles of the three main books in Kant's Critical philosophy, which adopt the theoretical, practical and judicial standpoints, respectively. The purpose of Critical philosophy is to prepare a secure foundation for metaphysics.

disposition: the tendency a person has at a given point in time to act in one way or another (i.e., to obey the moral law or to disobey it).

duty: an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.

empirical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a posteriori. Most of the knowledge we gain through ordinary experience, or through science, is empirical. 'This table is brown' is a typical empirical statement.

experience: the combination of an intuition with a concept in the form of a judgment. 'Experience' in this 'mediate' sense is a synonym for 'empirical knowledge'. The phrase 'possible experience' refers to a representation which is presented to our sensibility through intuition, but is not yet known, because it has not been presented to our understanding through concepts. 'Experience' in this sense is 'immediate' and contrasts with 'knowledge'.

faculty: a fundamental power of human subjects to do something or perform some rational function.

faith: a rational attitude towards a potential object of knowledge which arises when we are subjectively certain it is true even though we are unable to gain theo­retical or objective certainty. By contrast, knowledge implies objective and subjective certainty, while opinion is the state of having neither objective nor subjective certainty. Kant encouraged a more humble approach to philoso­phy by claiming to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith-i.e., by dis­­tinguishing between what we can know empirically and what is transcen­dent, which we can approach only by means of faith.

formal: the active or subjective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the rational activity of the subject

heteronomy: an action which is determined by some outside influence (i.e., some force other than the freedom given by practical reason, such as inclina­tion) impelling the subject to act in a certain way. Such action is nonmoral (i.e., neither moral nor immoral).

hypothetical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a posteriori (though Kant him­self wrongly identified it as synthetic and a priori). Most metaphysical knowledge is properly viewed from this perspective, instead of from the spec­ulative perspective of traditional metaphysics. 'There is a God' is a typical hypothetical statement.

ideas: the species of representation which gives rise to metaphysical beliefs. Ideas are special concepts which arise out of our knowledge of the empirical world, yet seem to point beyond nature to some transcendent realm. The three most important metaphysical ideas are God, freedom and immortality.

imagination: the faculty responsible for forming concepts out of the 'manifold of intuition' and for synthesizing intuitions with concepts to form objects which are ready to be judged.

inclination: the faculty or object which motivates a person to act in a heteronomous way. Following inclinations is neither morally good nor morally bad, except when doing so directly prevents a person from acting ac­cording to duty-i.e., only when choosing to obey an inclination results in  disobedience to the moral law.

intelligible: presented to the subject without any material being provided by sensibility. It is more or less equivalent to the terms supersensible and transcendent.

intuition: the passive species of representation, by means of which our sen­sibility enables to have sensations. By requiring appearances to be given in space and time, intuitions allow us to perceive particular relations between representations, thereby limiting empirical knowledge to the sensible realm.

judgment: in the first Critique, the use of the understanding by which an object is determined to be empirically real, through a synthesis of intuitions and concepts. The third Critique examines the form of our feelings of pleasure and displeasure in order to construct a system based on the faculty of judg­ment (= the judicial standpoint) in its aesthetic and teleological manifesta­tions.

judicial: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to experi­ence-i.e., to what we feel, as opposed to what we know or desire to do. Judicial reason is virtually synonymous with 'Critique' itself, and is con­cerned with questions about the most profound ways in which we experience the world. Finding the source of two examples of such experiences is the task of the third Critique. 

knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.

logical: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both analytic and a priori. Hence it is concerned with nothing but the relationships between concepts. The law of noncontradiction (A is not -A) is the fundamental law of traditional, Aristotelian logic. (If we call this 'analytic' logic, then 'synthetic' logic would be based on the oppo­site law of 'contradiction' [A is -A].) 'All bachelors are unmarried' is a typical logical statement.

material: the passive or objective aspect of something-that is, the aspect which is based on the experience a subject has, or on the objects given in such an experience.

maxim: the material rule or principle used to guide a person in a particular situation about what to do (e.g., 'I should never tell a lie'). It thus provides a kind of bridge between a persons inner disposition and outer actions.

metaphysics: the highest form of philosophy, which attempts to gain knowledge of the ideas. Because the traditional, speculative perspective fails to succeed in this task, Kant suggests a new, hypothetical perspective for metaphysics. Metaphysics can succeed only when it is preceded by Critique.

moral law: the one 'fact' of practical reason, which is in every rational per­son, though some people are more aware of it than others. The moral law, in essence, is our knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and our in­ner conviction that we ought to do what is good.

noumenon: the name given to a thing when it is viewed as a transcendent object. The term 'negative noumenon' refers only to the recognition of some­thing which is not an object of sensible intuition, while 'positive noumenon' refers to the (quite mistaken) attempt to know such a thing as an empirical object. These two terms are sometimes used loosely as synonyms for 'transcendental object' and 'thing in itself', respectively. 

object: a general term for any 'thing' which is conditioned by the subject's representation, and so is capable of being known. The thing in itself is a thing which cannot become an object. 
objective: related more to the object or representation out of which knowl­edge is constructed than to the subject possessing the knowledge. Considered transcendentally, objective knowledge is less certain than subjective knowl­edge; considered empirically, objective knowledge is more certain.

perspective: a way of thinking about or considering something; or a set of assumptions from which an object can be viewed. Knowing which perspec­tive is assumed is important because the same question can have different an­swers if different perspectives are assumed. Kant himself does not use this word, but he uses a number of other expressions (such as standpoint, way of thinking, employment of understanding, etc.) in precisely this way. The main Critical perspectives are the transcendental, empirical, logical and hypothetical.

phenomenon: the object of knowledge, viewed empirically, in its fully knowable state (i.e., conditioned by space and time and the categories).

practical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to action -i.e., to what we desire to do as opposed to what we know or feel. Practical reason is a synonym for will; and these two terms are concerned with ques­tions of morality. Finding the sources of such action is the task of the second Critique.

predisposition: the natural tendency a person has, apart from (or before having) any experience, to be morally good or evil.

pure: not mixed with anything sensible. Although its proper opposite is 'impure', Kant normally opposes 'pure' to 'empirical'.

rational: grounded in the faculty of reason rather than in sensibility

reality: if regarded from the empirical perspective, this refers to the ordinary world of nature; if regarded from the transcendental perspective, it refers to the transcendent realm of the noumenon.

reason: in the first Critique, the highest faculty of the human subject, to which all other faculties are subordinated. It abstracts completely from the conditions of sensibility. The second Critique examines the form of our de­sires in order to construct a system based on the faculty of reason (= the prac­tical standpoint). Reason's primary function is practical; its theoretical func­tion, though often believed to be more important, should be viewed as having a secondary importance.

regulative: providing important guidelines for how knowledge should be used, yet not itself playing any fundamental role in making up that knowl­edge.

religion: the way of acting, or perspective, according to which we interpret all our duties as divine commands.

representation: the most general word for an object at any stage in its de­termination by the subject, or for the subjective act of forming the object at that level. The main types of representations are intuitions, concepts and ideas.

schematism: the function of the faculty of imagination, through which concepts and intuitions are combined, or synthesized, according to a rule (called a schema). In the first Critique, this function is presented as one of the steps required in order for the understanding to produce empirical knowledge.

sensibility: the faculty concerned with passively receiving objects. This is accomplished primarily in the form of physical and mental sensations (via 'outer sense' and 'inner sense', respectively). However, such sensations are possible only if the objects are intuited, and intuition depends on space and time existing in their pure form as well. 

sensible: presented to the subject by means of sensibility.

space and time: considered from the empirical perspective, they form the context in which objects interact outside of us; considered from the transcen­dental perspective, they are pure, so they exist inside of us as conditions of knowledge.

speculative: the illusory perspective which wrongly uses reason in a hope­less attempt to gain knowledge about something transcendent. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of theoretical.

standpoint: the special type of perspective which determines the point from which a whole system of perspectives is viewed. The main Critical stand­points are the theoretical, practical and judicial.

subject: a general term for any rational person who is capable of having knowledge

subjective: related more to the subject than to the object or representation out of which knowledge is constructed. Considered transcendentally, subjec­tive knowledge is more certain that objective knowledge; considered empiri­cally, subjective knowledge is less certain. 

summum bonum: Latin for highest good. This is the ultimate goal of the moral system presented in the second Critique; it involves the ideal distribu­tion of happiness in exact proportion to each person's virtue. In order to con­ceive of its possibility, we must postulate the existence of God and human immortality, thus giving these ideas practical reality.

supersensible: see intelligible and transcendent.

synthesis: integration of two opposing representations into one new repre­sentation, with a view towards constructing a new level of the object's real­ity. Philosophy as Critique employs synthesis more than analysis. On the operation of synthesis in the first Critique, see imagination.

synthetic: a statement or item of knowledge which is known to be true because of its connection with some intuition

system: a set of basic facts or arguments (called 'elements') arranged accord­ing to the order of their logical relationships, as determined by the architec­ton­ic patterns of reason. Kant's Critical philosophy is a System made up of three sub­ordinate systems, each defined by a distinct standpoint, and each made up of the same four perspectives.

teleological: having to do with purposes or ends. The second half of the third Critique examines the objective purposiveness in our perception of natural organisms in order to construct a system of teleological judgment.

theoretical: one of Kant's three main standpoints, relating primarily to cognition-i.e., to what we know as opposed to what we feel or desire to do. Theoretical reason is concerned with questions about our knowledge of the ordinary world (the world science seeks to understand). Finding the source of such knowledge is the task of the first

Critique, which would best be entitled the Critique of Pure 'Theoretical' Reason

thing in itself: an object considered transcendentally apart from all the conditions under which a subject can gain knowledge of it. Hence the thing in itself is, by definition, unknowable. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym of noumenon.

time: see space and time.

transcendent: the realm of thought which lies beyond the boundary of pos­sible knowledge, because it consists of objects which cannot be presented to us in intuition-i.e., objects which we can never experience with our senses (sometimes called noumena). The closest we can get to gaining knowledge of the transcendent realm is to think about it by means of ideas. (The opposite of 'transcendent' is 'immanent'.)

transcendental: one of Kant's four main perspectives, aiming to establish a kind of knowledge which is both synthetic and a priori. It is a special type of philosophical knowledge, concerned with the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience. However, Kant believes all knowing subjects assume certain transcendental truths, whether or not they are aware of it. Transcendental knowledge defines the boundary between empirical knowledge and speculation about the transcendent realm. 'Every event has a cause' is a typical transcendental statement.

transcendental object: an object considered transcendentally insofar as it has been presented to a subject, but is not yet represented in any determined way-i.e., not yet influenced by space and time or by the categories.

understanding: in the first Critique, the faculty concerned with actively producing knowledge by means of concepts. This is quite similar to what is normally called the mind. It gives rise to the logical perspective, which en­ables us to compare concepts with each other, and to the empirical perspective (where it is also called judgment), which enables us to combine concepts with intuitions in order to produce empirical knowledge. The first Critique exam­ines the form of our cognitions in order to construct a system based on the faculty of understanding (= the theoretical standpoint).

will: the manifestation of reason in its practical form (see practical). The two German words, 'Willkür' and 'Wille' can both be translated in English as 'will'. Willkür refers to the faculty of choice, which for Kant is just one (empirical) function of the more fundamental faculty of practical reason (= Wille).




[*] Source: Palmquist, S.P., 2004, “Glossary of Kant’s Technical Terms”. Retrieved 2004
               StevePq@hkbu.edu.hk>

26 comments:

  1. Erlinda Rahma Dewi
    16709251006
    S2 PPs Pendidikan Matematika A 2016

    Belajar filsafat dimulai dari hal sederhana, salah satunya memahami istilah. Dengan membaca artikel di atas, saya mendapatkan penjelasan terhadap istilah tersebut. Seperti estetika, estetika tidak hanya tentang keindahan dalam bidang seni saja, ternyata dalam filsafat, estetika meliputi persepsi seseorang tentang berbagai hal dalam kehidupan. Jujur dan tidak jujur termasuk estetika dalam filsafat. Dari hal ini pula saya belajar bahwa kita tidak boleh berhenti belajar dan meremehkan ilmu walau kecil. Meskipun hanya sebuah istilah tetapi jika kita tidak memahaminya maka kita tidak bisa memahami pengetahuan di tingkat selanjutnya.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Bertu Takaendengan
    16709251034
    P.Mat B

    Filsafat adalah olah pikir dan sebenar-benarnya filsafat adalah penjelasanmu sehingga kebenaran dalam filsafat bersifat subjektif dan relatif tegantung ruang dan waktu. Ini bukan berarti berfilsafat bisa dengan seenaknya menyimpulkan dan mengartikan segala hal dengan menggunakan pikiran kita sendiri.Perlu diingat bahwa kita adalah mahluk berbatas yang tak mampu memikirkan segala hal dalam pikiran karena itu diperlukan juga kebenaran objektif yaitu berupa kebenaran yang didasarkan pada kesepakatan yang sifatnya konsisten seperti glosarium yang berisi istilah-istilah yang memuat definisi-definisi yang dapat dijadikan dasar dan acuan dalam melakukan olah pikir.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Devi Anggriyani
    16701251023
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Filsafat saja mempelajarinya sudah sulit, ditambah dengan banyaknya kata-kata sulit dalam berfilsafat. Sehingga glossary ini sangat membantu untuk lebih memahami fislasat. Namun, alangkah senangnya saya jika dalam bahasa Indonesia, sehingga tidak terjadi miss perception antar kita dan Prof. Marsigit

    ReplyDelete
  4. Arifta Nurjanah
    16709251030
    PPs P Mat B

    Belajar filsafat salah satunya ialah dengan cara mempelajari pikiran-pikiran para filsuf. Immanuel Kant merupakan salah seorang filsufyang memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap ilmu pengetahuan. Banyak istilah-istilah penting yang ia kemukakan. Artikel ini memberikan banyak tambahan istilah-istilah baru bagi saya. Selain utu juga memberikan pandangan yang lain tentang istilah yang pernah saya ketahui. Misalnya saja knowledge, understanding dan will yang menjadi definisi baru bagi saya.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Misnasanti
    16709251011
    PPs PMAT A 2016

    Setelah membaca istilah dari Kant ada beberapa istilah yang baru saya ketahui, seperti heteronomy, yaitu tindakan yang ditentukan oleh beberapa pengaruh luar (yaitu, suatu kekuatan selain kebebasan yang diberikan dengan alasan praktis, seperti kecenderungan) yang mendorong subjek untuk bertindak dengan cara tertentu. tindakan tersebut nonmoral. Dalam mempelajari istilah-istilah dalam filsafat, dimulai dari istilah yang sederhana sampai yang kompleks,
    dan dalam mempelajari filsafat, tidak hanya cukup dipelajari selama kita mengikuti perkuliahan filsafat ilmu saja, namun terus berlangsung sampai akhir hayat kita nanti.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Bayu Adhiwibowo
    16709251014 / S2 Pend. Matematika
    Dalam memeperlajari filsafat ada beberapa istilah yang harus kita ketahui terlebih dahulu. Di atas adalah kumpulan beberapa istilah yang disusun oleh Imanuel Kant sebagai salah satu filsuf pada abad itu. Istilah-istilah ini akanm digunakan dalam belajar filsafat.

    ReplyDelete

  7. MARTIN/RWANDA
    PPS2016PEP/B
    Copernican revolution: in astronomy, the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; in philosophy, the (analogous) theory that the subject of knowledge does not remain at rest, but revolves around (i.e., actively deter­mines certain aspects of) the object. Thus, the formal characteristics of the empirical world (i.e., space and time and the categories) are there only because the subject's mind puts them there, transcendentally.

    In all the technical terms by Augustus Kant, i choose to comment on this above stated meaning. in geography or astraunomy, Copernican revolution means when the earth revolves around the sun but in philosophy it means looking for knowledgr never ends. this is a good message to all philosophers or to all people who think they have enough knowledge and stop sharpening their knowledge.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Fevi Rahmawati Suwanto
    16709251005
    PMat A / S2

    Istilah-istilah yang disusun oleh Kant di atas sangat membantu dalam mempelajari filsafat. Sebaiknya sebelum mempelajari filsafat kita dikenalkan dengan istilah-istilah tersebut sebagai pengetahuan dasar agar tidak terjadi perbedaan pengertian. Barulah kemudian pengetahuan dasar tersebut diakamodasi dengan pengetahuan filsafat lainnya secara lebih luas dan mendalam.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Johanis Risambessy
    16701251029
    PPs PEP B 2016

    Immanuel Kant menyusun berbagai istilah yang dapat membantu kita mempelajari filsafat. Istilah yang ada dapat dijadikan sebagai pengetahuan dasar yang dapat diakomodasikan dengan pengetahuan lainnya agar dapat dikaji lebih mendalam lagi.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Rospala Hanisah Yukti Sari
    16790251016
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A Tahun 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

    Filsafat merupakan olah pikir. Sehingga, dalam prosesnya pun terkadang menemukan hal-hal yang rumit seperti istilah-istilah yang nampaknya asing di telinga kita. Namun, dengan postingan ini sangat membantu dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan yang memadai.

    Wassalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Nuha Fazlussalam
    13301244023
    s1 pendidikan matematika c 2013

    untuk menguasi dunia minimal kita kuadai bahsa dan istilah bahasa inggris karena bahas inggris menajdi bahas international yang diakui oleh dunia, untuk mempelajari dan meperdalam agaam amak bahasa arab adalah salah satu alat yang bisa diunkan untuk menguasai dan belajar agama isalma belajar tafsir, fiqih, hadis, usul hadis, usul fiqih, akhlaq dan adab dst asli bearsal dari ulama dan ulama-ulama terdahul mengambil dari sumber hadis dan alquran yang bahsaa arab, sehingga bahasa dan istilah bahasa arab menjadi senjata untuk emperdalam agama islam.
    nah, sekarang adalajh untuk bisa mendapatkan buah, memeperdalam, dan menguasi filsafat harus bisa mengausi bahsa dan istilah filsafat, dengan mengetahui istilah filsafat bisa menajdi alat da jemabtan untuk mencapai sitesis dan saling meneremahkan.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Fatya Azizah
    16709251039
    Pendidikan Matematika B PPS UNY 2016

    knowledge: the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.
    hal ini sering sekali disampaikan bapak marsigit dalam perkuliahan mata kuliah filsafat di kelas yaitu bahwa pengetahuan adalah gabungan dari intuisi dan konsep, serta bahwa pengetahuan merupakan tujuan akhir dari filsafat.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Mempelajari filsafat sama artinya dengan mempelajari pemikiran para filsuf. Salah satu filsuf yang sangat banyak karyanya adalah Immanuel Kant.
    Tentu memahami pemikirannya tak hanya lewat memahami istilah-istiah yang ada dalam glossary ini, masih perlu banyak belajar dan memahami lebih banyak, banyak dan banyak lagi.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Andi Sri Mardiyanti Syam
    16701251031
    PPs S2 PEP Kelas B 2016

    Bismillah.
    Assalamualaikum Warohmatullah Wabarokatuh.

    Emanuel Kant dengan prinsip nya yang berada di persimpangan jalan, dalam bukunya yang berjudul Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant mengurai proses pengetahuan manusia atas tiga tingkatan. Tingkat pertama disebut pemahaman inderawi (Sinneswahrnehmung). Tingkat kedua disebut akal budi (verstand). Tingkat terakhir disebut budi atau intelektual (vernunft. tiap manusia telah memiliki ruang dan waktu (Raum und Zeit) sebagai unsur apriori yang mendahului pengalaman

    Sekian, terima kasih.
    Wassalamualaikum Warohmatullah Wabarokatuh.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Andi Sri Mardiyanti Syam
    16701251031
    PPs S2 PEP Kelas B 2016

    Bismillah.
    Assalamualaikum Warohmatullah Wabarokatuh.

    Menggunakan ruang dan waktu manusia memahami gejala (fenomena) atau penampakan (eksistensi) dari segala sesuatu. Dibelakang fenomena ini terdapat realitas “benda pada dirinya sendiri” yang disebut das Ding an sich. Tetapi das Ding an sich tidak dapat diamati. Manusia hanya dapat mengamati sintesa dari (1) data inderawi yang ditangkap sebagai materi atau bahan, dan (2) struktur ruang-waktu yang disebut bentuk (formen). Pada tahap akal budi (verstand) terjadi pengolahan spontan atas input yang berasal dari pengalaman. Pengolahan spontan ini mungkin terjadi karena adanya kategori-kategori (kategorien). Kategori-kategori ini adalah konsep-konsep fundamental yang membantu manusia menyusun pengetahuannya.

    Sekian, terima kasih.
    Wassalamualaikum Warohmatullah Wabarokatuh.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Budi Yanto
    16709251024
    P. Mat S2 Kelas B 2016
    Filsafat adalah olah pikir. Pengetahuan berasal dari pikiran dan pengalaman. Pikiran yang yang berasal dari dunia ide dan pengalaman berasal dari dunia nyata. Pengetahuan dibangun dari pengalaman sebelumnya dan pengetahuan juga dibangun pada saat mengalami sesuatu kejadian. Pengetahuan dapat dirasakan oleh hati, pikiran, lisan dan perbuatan. Hati yang meyakini sebuah pengetahuan, pikiran yang memikirkan sebuah pengalaman dan pengetahuan, lisan menjelaskan sebuah pengetuan, dan perbuatan adalah hasil dari pengetahuan itu sendiri.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Wan Denny Pramana Putra
    16709251010
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika A

    Dari Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms oleh Palmquist membantu sekali dalam saya memahami istilah-istilah yang sering dipakai dalam blog ini agar saya menjadi mudah mengerti tentang isi dari artikel-artikel terkait. Immanuel Kant membantu kita dalam memahami filsafat dengan bahasa yang lebih sederhana dan dipahami oleh para pembaca pada umumnya.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Belajar filsafat itu tidak mudah. Ada banyak kata atau istilah-istilah yang sulit saya pahami. Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms di atas memberikan pengertian-pengertian dari istilah filsafat yang akan sering ditemui ketika kita belajar filsafat. Sebagai seorang filsof, Immanuel Kant tidak egois, dia mengerti bahwa tidak semua orang bisa langsung paham dengan bahasa filsafat untuk itu dia memberikan kemudahan dengan membuatkan glosarium bagi orang yang membacanya.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Siti Mufidah
    13301241036
    Pendidikan Matematika A 2013

    "Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms By Palmquist", Glossary dari Immanuel Kant dapat membantu kita mempermudah mempelajari filsafat. Immanuel Kant adalah seorang tokoh filsafat yang luar biasa dan ilmu dan pemikirannya masih dipergunakan samapai saat ini. Walaupun masih belajar mengenai filsafat, tetapi melalui glossary tersebut tampak sosok Immanuel kant sebagai seorang tokoh yang memiliki pengaruh besar dalam ilmu filsafat. Terima kasih.

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  20. RISKA AYU ARDANI
    16709251021
    PMAT KELAS B PPS UNY 2016

    Cara memperoleh pengetahuan tanpa menarik bagi pengalaman tertentu. Metode ini digunakan untuk menetapkan kebenaran transendental dan logis. Transendental secara harafiah dapat diartikan sebagai sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan transenden atau sesuatu yang melampaui pemahaman terhadap pengalaman biasa dan penjelasan ilmiah. Hal-hal yang transenden bertentangan dengan dunia material. Dalam pengertian tersebut, filsafat transendental dapat disamakan dengan metafisika. Bahkan Immanuel Kant menggnakan kata transendental ketika menyebut transendental aplikasi prinsip dasar dari pemahaman murni yang melampaui atau mengatasi batas-batas pengalaman. Sedangkan kebernaran logis adalah kebenaran yang diperoleh atas dasar sistematika dan pemikiran yang dapat diterima oleh akal pikiran yang dapat dibuktikan dan diterima hasil pembuktiannya.

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  21. Rhomiy Handican
    16709251031
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika B 2016

    kosa kata diatas pertama kali dikenalkan dalam hidup saya ketika belajar filsafat, sangat banyak istilah yang beru pertama kali kenal dan perlu pemahaman lebih agar memudahkan saya untuk belajar filsafat. salah satuny dengan pemberian glosarium istilah filsafat ini, semoga dengan diberikan glosarium ini dapat memudahkan saya mengenal filsafat lebih mendalam lagi. terima kasih pak marsigit.

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  22. Ummi Santria
    16709251008
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas A – 2016

    Daftar kata-kata yang digunakan oleh Immanuel Kant untuk menjelaskan bagaimana kritiknya atas rasio murni dan pembahasan lainnya. Sehingga istilah-istilah teknis yang digunakan dapat memudahkan para pembaca buku Immanuel Kant. Karena filsafat menggunakan bahasa analog, sehingga kesulitan dalam memahami isinya sangatlah tidak mudah. Dengan adanya glossary ini, membantu untuk tidak salah persepsi atas penjelasannya.

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  23. LINA
    16701261022
    PEP-A/2016

    Terima kasih atas penyertaan 'Glossary' istilah-istilah teknis yang digunakan oleh Kant dalam menjelaskan ilmu pengetahuan dari bukunya "Pure Reason". pendefinisian istilah-istilah ini sangat membantu kami dalam upaya memahami konsep pengetahuan menurut Immanuel Kant.

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  24. LINA
    16701261022
    PEP-A/2016

    A posteriori adalah proses memahami gejala (yang nantinya disebut pengetahuan), melalui pengalaman. Jadi pengalaman merupan sumber terciptanya pengetahuan. Pengetahuan digunakan untuk membangun kebenaran empirik dan kebenaran hipotetik.

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    Replies
    1. LINA
      16701261022
      PEP-A/2016

      Pengetahuan bagi anak kecil adalah bersifat a posteriori. Untuk memahami suatu gejala, anak kecil perlu mendapatkan pengalaman yang dengan pengalaman tersebut pemahaman mengenai suatu gejala bisa terbentuk. Oleh karena itu, untuk mengajarkan anak kecil mengenai sesuatu, kita hendaknya mengajar dengan memberikan pengalaman yag bermakna. Hal ini sesuai dengan tahapan perkembangan kognitif anak-anak.

      Delete
  25. Asma' Khiyarunnisa'
    16709251036
    PPs PM B 2016

    Filsafat merupakan hasil pemikiran para filsuf. Dalam mempelajari filsafta kita akan menemukan beberapa kata yang masih sangat asing di telinga kita. Glosarium di atas dapat membantu kita untuk memahami filsafat lebih jauh lagi.

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