Nov 25, 2012

BEHAVIORIST EMPIRICAL PSYCHOLOGY




BEHAVIORIST EMPIRICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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By Marsigit, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia

Email: marsigitina@yahoo.com
It was elaborated  that epistemological Kantianism included such different attitudes as empirical Kantianism, rooted in  psychological inquiries. Serendip, 1996, insisted that Kant's defining the prerequisites that would need to be met for psychology to become an empirical science by analyzing the nature of the cognitive powers, feelings of pleasure and displeasure, affects, passions, and character in the context of a denial of the possibility of an empirical science of conscious process. Kant, 1790, stated that an ability to communicate one's mental state, might easily be demonstrated from the natural propensity of mankind to social life that is empirically and psychologically. In the first Critique, Kant said that all the actions of a human being are determined in accord with the order of nature; if we could investigate all the appearances, there would be no human action we could not predict with certainty. Further Kant  said, in Grounding, that everything which takes place is determined without exception in accordance with laws of nature. Kant  claim that  if we knew the relevant preconditions, we could calculate a human being’s conduct for the future with as much certainty as a lunar or solar eclipse. At the same time, Kant insists that human beings are transcendentally free, uncaused causes of their actions; a rational being can say of every unlawful action he performed that he could have omitted it. Ziniewicz, G.L., 1996 noted that Kant’s subjective experience includes both the passing psychological states of the subject as empirical ego that is the self as it appears in time as well as the changing states or motions of external objects.

Kant, 1781, claimed that the productive imagination contributes nothing to the explanation of the possibility of a priori cognition, and for this reason belongs not to transcendental philosophy, but to psychology. To explain how the sense represents us to our own consciousness, we intuit ourselves only as we are inwardly affected. Kant  said that the thinking subject is the object-matter of Psychology; the sum total of all phenomena is the object-matter of Cosmology; and the thing which contains the highest condition of the possibility of all that is cogitable is the object-matter of all Theology. Therefore, the expression, "I," as a thinking being, designates the object-matter of psychology, which may be called "the rational doctrine of the soul," inasmuch as in this science I desire to know nothing of thesoul but what, independently of all experience , may be concluded from this conception "I," in so far as it appears in all thought. According to Kant,    "I think" is therefore the only text of rational psychology, from which it must develop its whole system. Kant  claimed that if at the foundation of our pure rational cognition of thinking beings there lay more than the mere Cogito that is if we could likewise call in aid observations on the play of our thoughts, and the then derived natural laws of the thinking self, there would arise an empirical psychology which would be a kind of physiology of the internal sense and might possibly be capable of explaining the phenomena of that sense.

Kant, 1781, claimed that if some of the moderns have thought to enlarge its domain by introducing psychological discussions on the mental faculties, such as imagination and wit, metaphysical, discussions on the origin of knowledge and the different kinds of certitude, according to the difference of the objects, they only shows their ignorance of the peculiar nature of logical science. Kant  said that as pure logic has no empirical principles, and consequently draws nothing from psychology, which therefore has no influence on the canon of the understanding; it is a demonstrated doctrine, and everything in it must be certain completely a priori; however, applied logic requires empirical and psychological principles for its treats of attention, its impediments and consequences, of the origin of error, of the state of doubt, hesitation, conviction, etc., and to it is related pure general logic in the same way that pure morality, which contains only the necessary moral laws of a free will, is related to practical ethics, which considers these laws under all the impediments of feelings,  inclinations, and passions to which men are more or less subjected, and which never can furnish us with a true and demonstrated science. In the Critic, Kant, in his attempting a psychological explanation, elaborated that it is of note that the imagination is able to recall the signs for concepts and to reproduce the image and shape of an object out of a countless number of others of a different, or even of the very same, kind.

Kant, 1781, argued that if the mind is engaged upon comparisons, we may well suppose that it can superimpose as it were one image upon another, and from the coincidence of a number of the same kind arrive at a mean contour which serves as a common standard for all. Kant claimed that the power of imagination does all things by means of a dynamical effect upon the organ of internal sense, arising from the frequent apprehension of such forms. According to Kant,  it is not by beauty that its presentation pleases, but merely because it does not contradict any of the conditions under which alone a thing belonging to this genus can be beautiful; and thus the presentation is merely academically correct. Kant  insisted that the correctness of such an ideal of beauty is evidenced by its not permitting any sensuous charm to mingle with the delight in its object, in which it still allows us to take a great interest. Kant  then concluded that this fact in turn shows that an estimate formed according to such a standard can never be purely aesthetic, and that one formed according to an ideal of beauty cannot be a simple judgment of taste. Kant,  claimed that the task of explaining the community of the soul with the body does not properly belong to the psychology of which we are here speaking; because it proposes to prove the personality of the soul apart from this communion and is therefore transcendent in the proper sense of the word. Kant  insisted that we should also become aware that in the consciousness of our existence there was an a priori content, which would serve to determine our own existence that is an existence only sensuously determinable relatively, however, to a certain internal faculty in relation to an intelligible world; however, this would not give the least help to the attempts of rational psychology.

Kant, 1781,  persisted that the paralogisms of pure reason laid the foundation for a dialectical psychology and the antinomy of pure reason will present us with the transcendental principles of a pretended pure (rational) cosmology and  not to declare it valid and to appropriate it, but to present it as an idea which cannot be reconciled with phenomena and experience. Further, Kant,  maintained that, however, if we proceed analytically- the "I think" as a proposition containing in itself an existence as given, consequently modality being the principle- and dissect this proposition, in order to ascertain its content, and discover whether and how this Ego-determines its existence in time and space without the aid of anything external; the propositions of rationalistic psychology would not begin with the conception of a thinking being, but with a reality, and the properties of a thinking being in general would be deduced from the mode in which this reality is cogitated, after everything empirical had been abstracted. Further Kant  argued that there does not then exist any rational psychology as a doctrine furnishing any addition to our knowledge of ourselves; it is nothing more than a discipline, which sets impassable limits to speculative reason in this region of thought, to prevent it, on the one hand, from throwing itself into the arms of a soulless materialism, and, on the other, from losing itself in the mazes of a baseless spiritualism. Kant, ultimately concluded that from all the evidences, it indicates that rational psychology has its origin in a mere misunderstanding. However, Kant, 1781, warned that what makes an a priori principle apparent, lifts them out of the sphere of empirical psychology, in which otherwise they would remain buried amid the feelings of gratification and pain, so as to place them, and, thanks to them, to place the faculty of judgment itself, in the class of judgments of which the basis of an a priori principle is the distinguishing feature, and, thus distinguished, to introduce them into transcendental philosophy.

Kant, 1781, further claimed that the transcendental idea of freedom is far from constituting the entire content of the psychological conception so termed, which is for the most part empirical; it merely presents us with the conception of spontaneity of action, as the proper ground for imputing freedom to the cause of a certain class of objects; it is, however, the true stumbling-stone to philosophy, which meets with unconquerable difficulties in the way of its admitting this kind of unconditioned causality. According to Kant,  the psychological and theological ideas are not antinomial and contain no contradiction; because when we wish to admit the existence of a thing, it is not sufficient to convince ourselves that there is no positive obstacle in the way; for it cannot be allowable to regard mere creations of thought, which transcend, though they do not contradict, all our conceptions, as real and determinate objects, solely upon the authority of a speculative reason striving to compass its own aims. Kant  concluded  that the psychological idea is, therefore, meaningless and inapplicable, except as the schema of a regulative conception; thus the psychological idea of the ego, for instances,  when employed as a constitutive principle for the explanation of the phenomena of the soul, and for the extension of our knowledge regarding this subject beyond the limits of experience, is convenient enough for the purposes of pure reason, but detrimental and even ruinous to its interests in the sphere of nature and experience.

Kant, 1781, summed up that empirical psychology has always been considered a part of metaphysics, and from which in our time such important philosophical results have been expected, after the hope of constructing an a priori system of knowledge had been abandoned; therefore, Kant suggested that it must be placed by the side of empirical physics or physics proper; that is, must be regarded as forming a part of applied philosophy, the a priori principles of which are contained in pure philosophy, which is therefore connected, although it must not be confounded, with psychology. Kant  concluded, therefore, that  Empirical psychology must be banished from the sphere of metaphysics, and is indeed excluded by the very idea of that science.

Note:

  --------, 1994-2000, Immanuel Kant and Kantianism, Encyclop√¶dia Britannica, Inc, Britannica Online, http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=macro/5003/49/toc.html
  Kant, I., 1790, The Critic of Judgment, translated by James Creed Meredith
  Ibid.
  Kant, I., 1781, Critic of Pure Reason, Translatedby J.M.D. Meiklejohn
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.
  Ibid.

18 comments:

  1. Erlinda Rahma Dewi
    16709251006
    S2 PPs Pendidikan Matematika A 2016

    Kant , 1781, mengklaim bahwa imajinasi produktif berkontribusi untuk penjelasan kemungkinan kognisi priori, dan untuk alasan ini bukanlah milik filsafat transendental, tetapi psikologi. Untuk menjelaskan bagaimana sense mewakili kita untuk kesadaran kita, intuisi diri hanya karena dalam hati kita terpengaruh. Kant mengatakan bahwa subjek pemikiran adalah objek Psikologi; jumlah total dari semua fenomena adalah objek Kosmologi; dan hal yang berisi kondisi tertinggi semua kemungkinan yang dpt dimengerti adalah objek Teologi.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Aprisal
    16709251019
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    Assalamu Alaikum Wr.Wb

    Psikologi Behaviorisme adalah ilmu pisokologi yang mempelajari tentang tingkah atau perilaku manusia. Dengan kita mempelajarinya kita dapat mengetahui tentang hal ini. Dan tingkah laku seseorang salah satunya terbentuk karena proses meniru dan tingkah laku seseorang akan terbentuk sama dengan lingkungan di mana orang itu berada. Karena lingkungan mempengaruhi tingkah laku seseorang. Kant, 1781, menyatakan bahwa jika beberapa filsuf modern berpikir untuk mengembangkan domainnya dengan memperkenalkan diskusi psikologis pada kemampuan mental, seperti imajinasi dan kecerdasan, metafisik, diskusi tentang asal-usul pengetahuan dan berbagai jenis kepastian, menurut perbedaan objeknya dan hanya menunjukkan sifat logisnya. Kant mengatakan bahwa logika murni tidak memiliki prinsip empiris, dan akibatnya banyak mengadopsi dari psikologi.

    Waalaikum salam wr

    ReplyDelete
  3. Dita Nur Syarafina
    NIM. 16709251003
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    Kant mengklaim bahwa imajinasi memberikan kontribusi terhadap penjelasan dari kemungkinan kognisi a priori dan untuk pernyataan ini tidak ada kaitannya terhadap filsafat tetapi psikologi. Kant menyatakan bahwa jika subjek berpikir objek maka ini termasuk ke dalam hal-hal psikologi, jika jumlah total dari semua fenomena dinyatakan sebagai objek maka ini berkaitan dengan masalah kosmologi, dan hal-hal yang berisi kondisi tertinggi dari semua kemungkinan yang cogitable dinyatakan sebagai objek maka ini termasuk masalah teologi. Oleh karena itu dapat memikirkan sesuatu kita harus tau kedudukan objek tersebut sebagai apa untuk tau kita menyelidiki secara psikologi, kosmologi, atau teologi.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Konstantinus Denny Pareira Meke
    NIM. 16709251020
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    Behaviorisme merupakan salah satu aliran psikologi yang meyakini bahwa untuk mengkaji perilaku individu harus dilakukan terhadap setiap aktivitas individu yang dapat diamati, bukan pada peristiwa hipotetis yang terjadi dalam diri individu. Pandangan ini sebetulnya sudah berlangsung lama sejak jaman Yunani Kuno, ketika psikologi masih dianggap bagian dari kajian filsafat. Pengertian belajar menurut teori Behavioristik adalah perubahan tingkah laku sebagai akibat dari adanya reaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Seseorang dikatakan telah belajar sesuatu apabila ia mampu menunjukan perubahan pada tingkah lakunya, apabila dia belum menunjukkan perubahan tingkah laku maka belum dikatakan bahwa ia telah melakukan proses belajar. Ciri dari teori ini adalah mengutamakan unsur-unsur dan bagian kecil, bersifat mekanistis, menekankan peranan lingkungan, mementingkan pembentukan reaksi atau respon, menekankan pentingnya latihan, mementingkan mekanisme hasil belajar, mementingkan peranan kemampuan dan hasil belajar yang diperoleh adalah munculnya perilaku yang diinginkan.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    16701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Berikut pandangan penting Psikologi Empirisc menuurut kant: “Kant, 1781, summed up that empirical psychology has always been considered a part of metaphysics, and from which in our time such important philosophical results have been expected, after the hope of constructing an a priori system of knowledge had been abandoned; therefore, Kant suggested that it must be placed by the side of empirical physics or physics proper; that is, must be regarded as forming a part of applied philosophy, the a priori principles of which are contained in pure philosophy, which is therefore connected, although it must not be confounded, with psychology. Kant concluded, therefore, that Empirical psychology must be banished from the sphere of metaphysics, and is indeed excluded by the very idea of that science.”

    ReplyDelete
  6. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    16701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Psikologi sebagai ilmu kejiwaan yang menelusuri hakikat manusia. Tingkah laku psikologi empiris menjelaskan suatu perinsip pengetahuan bahwa psikologi empirik berdasarkan suatu pengetahuan apriori yang berdasarkan pada sisi empiris. Dimana terdapat hubungan antara perinsip perinsip filsafat dengan perilaku manusia.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Siska Nur Rahmawati
    16701251028
    PEP-B 2016



    Tingkah laku psikologi empiris adalah yang mempelajari mengenai tingkah laku/ perbuatan manusia yang didasarkan pada empirism. Adapun tingkah laku ini didasarkan pada pemikiran sintetik apriori yang menggabungkan pengetahuan dan pengalaman. Sehingga tingkah laku yang dihasilkan oleh seseorang akan empirism.

    ReplyDelete
  8. MARTIN/RWANDA
    PPS2016PEP B
    It has sometimes been said that “behave is what organisms do.” Behaviorism is built on this assumption, and its goal is to promote the scientific study of behavior. The behavior, in particular, of individual organisms. Not of social groups. Not of cultures. But of particular persons and animals.

    ReplyDelete
  9. MARTIN/RWANDA
    PPS2016PEP B
    It has sometimes been said that “behave is what organisms do.” Behaviorism is built on this assumption, and its goal is to promote the scientific study of behavior. The behavior, in particular, of individual organisms. Not of social groups. Not of cultures. But of particular persons and animals.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Devi Anggriyani
    16701251023
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Berdasarkan artikel di atas menjelaskan bahwa Kantianisme berakar pada pertanyaan psikologis. Kant mendefinisikan prasyarat yang perlu dipenuhi untuk psikologi untuk menjadi ilmu empiris dengan menganalisis sifat kekuatan kognitif, perasaan senang dan tidak senang, mempengaruhi, gairah, dan karakter dalam konteks penyangkalan dari kemungkinan ilmu empiris proses sadar. Kemampuan untuk berkomunikasi kondisi mental seseorang, mungkin dengan mudah dibuktikan dari kecenderungan alami manusia untuk kehidupan sosial yang secara empiris dan psikologis. Kant mengatakan bahwa semua tindakan manusia ditentukan sesuai dengan urutan alam jika kita bisa menyelidiki semua penampilan, tidak akan ada tindakan manusia yang kita tidak bisa prediksi dengan pasti.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Rhomiy Handican
    16709251031
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika B 2016

    Kebebasan merupakan dasar dari hukum moral. Immanuel Kant menegaskan bahwa kehidupan moral tidak akn berarti apa-apa kalau tidak disertai dengan kebebasan. Penegasan kant ini menunjukkan bahwa orang baru akan masuk akal secara moral kalau ia tidak diwajibkan untuk melakukan sesuatu, melainkan ia memiliki kemungkinan untuk memilih antara melakukan atau tidak. Dengan kata lain, tindakan seseorang hanya bisa dinilai secara moral, kalau menolak dan menerima tindakan.

    ReplyDelete
  12. 16701251016
    PEP B S2

    Perilaku yang bersikap real dalam bidang sosiilogi berkembang dengan adanya sebuah keyakinan. Eksistensi ruang dan eaktu terhadap segala obyeknya adalah mendukung dalam terciptanya berbagai nilai dan moral sehingga berlaku dalam konteks sebuah hukum yang dapat diterima secara logis dan di ikuti

    ReplyDelete
  13. Rospala Hanisah Yukti Sari
    16790251016
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A Tahun 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

    Kant, 1781, mengklaim bahwa ide transedental dari kebebasan adalah jauh dari menyusun konten secara keseluruhan dari konsep psikologi yang juga disebutkan, yang merupakan bagian paling empiris; hal itu hanya menampilkan kepada kita dengan konsep tindakan yang spontan, sebagai dasar untuk tidak memperbolehkan kebebasan kepada sebab dari objek kelas yang pasti.

    Namun, teori Kant ini juga mengingatkan kepada kita, bahwa segala sesuatu di dunia ini memerlukan aturan kehidupan. Tidak ada kebebasan secara mutlak di dunia. Hal ini karena aturan kehidupan yang mengikat manusia untuk senantiasa terikat dengan aturan kehidupan tersebut agar tercipta kehidupan yang harmonis. Di tempat manapun akan ada aturan yang akan mengatur kehidupan manusia. Baik permasalahan teknis, maka aturan dapat diserahkan kepada manusia berdasarkan ahlinya. Namun, jika berhubungan dengan aspek ibadah dan peraturan kehidupan yang non-teknis, maka hal tersebut, manusia diperintahkan untuk menjalankan apa-apa yang sudah diturunkan oleh Allah SWT dengan ikhlas dan ridho.

    Wassalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.


    ReplyDelete
  14. Nanang Ade Putra Yaman
    16709251025
    PPs PM B 2016

    Assalamualaikum

    Saya kira dasar-dasar teori belajar behavioristic juga berdasar pada pemikiran psikologi behavioris empiris yang digagas kant sebagaimana diuraikan dalam penjelasan diatas bahwa “Kant suggested that it must be placed by the side of empirical physics or physics proper; that is, must be regarded as forming a part of applied philosophy, the a priori principles of which are contained in pure philosophy, which is therefore connected, although it must not be confounded, with psychology. Kant concluded, therefore, that Empirical psychology must be banished from the sphere of metaphysics, and is indeed excluded by the very idea of that science.”

    ReplyDelete
  15. Fevi Rahmawati Suwanto
    16709251005
    PMat A / S2

    Psikologi behaviorisme sebagai disiplin empiris yang mempelajari perilaku atau tingkah laku manusia sebagai adaptasi terhadap stimuli lingkungan. Intinya pada behaviorisme organisme mempelajari adaptasi perilaku dan pembelajaran tersebut dengan dikendalikan oleh prinsip-prinsip asosiasi. Psikologi empiris selalu dianggap sebagai bagian dari metafisika dimana harapan membangun sistem pengetahuan apriori telah ditinggalkan.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Azwar Anwar
    16709251038
    Pendidikan Matematika S2 Kelas B 2016

    Kant menyatakan bahwa kemampuan untuk berkomunikasi dengan kondisi mental seseorang, mungkin dengan mudah dibuktikan dari kecenderungan alami manusia untuk kehidupan sosial yang secara empiris dan psikologis. Psikologi empiris akan menjadi semacam fisiologi internal dan mungkin mampu menjelaskan fenomena yang terjadi di dalam diri. Psikologi empiris ini menjadi sebuah sebuah prinsip dan konsep regulatif untuk perpanjangan pengetahuan kita tentang subjek di luar batas pengalaman.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Nira Arsoetar
    16709251018
    PPS UNY Pendidikan Matematika
    Kelas A

    Kant menyatakan bahwa gagasan psikologis yang tidak memiliki makna tidak dapat diterapkan, kecuali sebagai skema konsepsi regulatif. Sebagai contoh, ego sebagai ide psikologis jika digunakan sebagai prinsip konstitutif yang akan digunakan dalam penjelasan tentang fenomena jiwa dan untuk perpanjangan pengetahuan tentang subjek, dapat merugikan dan bahkan menghancurkan kepentingan dalam lingkup alam dan pengalaman.

    ReplyDelete
  18. ULFA LU'LUILMAKNUN
    16709251022
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika 2016 Kelas B

    Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

    Kant, 1781, mengklaim bahwa imajinasi berkontribusi untuk penjelasan yang memungkinkan kognisi apriori, dan untuk alasan ini bukanlah milik filsafat transendental, tetapi psikologi yang menjelaskan bagaimana arti mewakili kesadaran kita sendiri. Kant mengatakan bahwa subjek pemikiran adalah objek-soal Psikologi, jumlah total dari semua fenomena adalah objek-soal Kosmologi, dan hal yang berisi kondisi tertinggi kemungkinan semua yang yang dapat dimengerti adalah objek-soal semua Teologi.

    Wassalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

    ReplyDelete

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