Oct 10, 2012

Elegi Menggapai "Kant's Phenomena and Noumena"




By Marsigit

According to Kant , transcendental illusion is the result of applying the understanding and sensibility beyond their limits.



Although the objective rules may be the same in each case, the subjective idea of causal connection can lead to different deductions.

Kant indicates that reason which connects us directly to things in themselves is a question that he cannot answer.

Transcendental Deduction aimed at showing that particular concepts, like causality or substance, are necessary conditions for the possibility of experience.

Since objects can only be experienced spatio-temporally, the only application of concepts that yields knowledge is to the empirical spatiotemporal world.

Beyond that realm, there can be no sensations of objects for the understanding to judge rightly or wrongly.

Kant states that thoughts without content are empty; intuitions without concepts are blind.

To have meaningful awareness some datum is required.

Accordingly, we possess two sources of input that can serve as such a datum physical sensation and the sense of moral duty.

Kant admits that transcendental synthesis of imagination is an action of the understanding on sensibility, first application, and the ground of all other applications of the understanding.

Kant finds that there was a paradox of how inner sense can represent to consciousness ourselves as we appear to ourselves.

This paradox is coming from the fact that the understanding is able to determine sensibility inwardly.

The understanding performs this act upon the passive subject whose faculty it is. While the understanding does not find in inner sense a combination of the manifold, we intuit inner sense of ourselves only as we are inwardly affected by ourselves.

Kant claims that in the synthetic original unity of apperception, we are conscious only that we are. This is a thought, not an intuition.

The consciousness of self is very far from being a knowledge of self; it also needs an intuition of the manifold in the self.

According to Kant , the transcendental deduction of the universally possible employment in experience of the pure concepts of the understanding needs to be clarified that the possibility of knowing a priori, by means of the categories of whatever objects, present themselves to our senses in respect of the laws of their combination.

On the other hand, Kant points out that the relations in which a priori is recognizable in space and time are valid to all the possible objects of experience.

However, they are valid only to the phenomena and not to the things in themselves. Therefore, space and time have the empirical reality and the transcendental ideality at the same time.

Kant insists that any thing as long as it is an external phenomenon necessarily appears in spatial relationship; while any phenomenon is necessarily appears in temporal relationship.

It calls that space and time are objective to everything given in experience; therefore, space and time are empirically real.

They do not have absolute reality because they do not apply to things in themselves, whether as substances or as attributes.

Due to space and time have no reality, but they are ideal, this, then, is called the Transcendental Ideality of Space and Time.

Kant contends that we are never able to recognize things in themselves. Any quality which belongs to the thing- in- itself can never be known to us through senses.

At the same time, anything which given in time is not the thing- in- itself.

What we intuitively recognize ourselves by reflection, is how we appear as a phenomenon, and not how we really are.

Kant claims that synthesis of apprehension is the combination of the manifold in an empirical intuition. Synthesis of apprehension of the manifold of appearance must conform to time and space.

Time and space are themselves intuitions which contain a manifold of their own. They are not presented in a priori and they are not just the forms of sensible intuitions.

Unity of synthesis of the manifold i.e. a combination to which everything conformly represented in space and time, is given a priori as the condition of the synthesis of all apprehension, without or within us, not in, but with these intuitions.

Kant then concludes that all synthesis was in subject to the categories in which it prescribes laws of a priori to appearances.

They do not exist in the appearances but only relative to the subject.

Kant claims that pure understanding is not in a position to prescribe through categories any a priori laws other than those which are involved in a nature in general that is in conformity to space and time.

Empirical laws cannot be derived from categories but are subject to them.

In term of the outcome of this deduction of the concepts of understanding, according to Kant, we cannot think of an object safe through the categories and cannot know an object so thought safe through intuitions corresponding to these concepts.

For all our intuitions are empirical, there can be no a priori knowledge except of objects of possible experience.

Objects of themselves have no existence, and space and time exist only as part of the mind; where intuitions by which perceptions are measured and judged.

Kant then states that a number of a priori concepts, which he called categories, exist.

This category falls into four groups: those concerning quantity are unity, plurality, and totality; those concerning quality are reality, negation, and limitation; those concerning relation are substance-and-accident, cause-and-effect, and reciprocity; and those concerning modality are possibility, existence, and necessity.

Kant's transcendental method has permitted him to reveal the a priori components of sensations and the a priori concepts.

There are a priori judgments that must necessarily govern all appearances of objects; these judgments are a function of the table of categories' role in determining all possible judgments.

Judgment is the fundamental action of thinking.

It is the process of conceptual unification of representations.

Determining thought must be judgmental in form.

Concepts are the result of judgments unifying further concepts; but this cannot be an infinitely regressing process.

Certain concepts are basic to judgment and not themselves the product of prior judgments; these are the categories of the pure concepts.

Therefore, the categories are necessary conditions of judging i.e. necessary conditions of thought. We can determine which concepts are the pure ones by considering the nature of judgment.

Judgments can be viewed as unity functions for representations.

Different forms of judgment will unify representations in different ways.

Understanding is the faculty of knowledge and the first pure knowledge of understanding is the principle of original synthetic unity of apperception; it is an objective condition of knowledge.

Kant further claims that transcendental unity of apperception is how all the manifold given in an intuition is united in a concept of an object.

It is objective and subjective unity of consciousness which is a determination of inner sense through which manifold is empirically given.

Kant insists that judgment is the manner in which given modes of knowledge are brought to the objective unity of apperception.

It indicates the objective unity of a given representation's relation to original apperception, and its necessary unity.

Kant claims that the representations belong to one another in virtue of the necessary unity of apperception in the synthesis of intuition that accords to principles of the objective determination of all representations and only in this way does there arise from this relation a judgment which is objectively valid.

Kant adds that all the manifold is determined in respect of one to the logical functions of judgment and is thereby brought into one consciousness; the categories are these functions of judgment.

The faculty of understanding is a faculty for synthesis the unification of representations; the functioning of this faculty can be analyzed at two different levels.

Corresponding to two different levels at which we may understand representations: a general logical level and a transcendental level.

In terms of the former, synthesis results analytic unity; in terms of the latter, synthesis results synthetic unity; and the latter takes into account the difference between pure and empirical concepts.

According to Kant, analytic unity is an analysis of a judgment at the level of general logic which indicates the formal relationship of concepts independently of their content; while synthetic unity refers to objectivity.

At the transcendental level, judgments have transcendental content; that is, they are related to some objects; they are given to the understanding as being about something.

This is more than a matter of having a certain logical form.

In which the Categories takes play in a judgment, that judgment is a representation of an object.

Kant says:
If understanding as such is explicated as our power of rules, then the power of judgment is the ability to subsume under rules, i.e., to distinguish whether something does or does not fall under a given rule.

The following stage in Kant's project will be used to analyze the formal or transcendental features of experience that enable judgment.

If there are any such features besides what the previous stages have identified, the cognitive power of judgment does have a transcendental structure.

Kant argues that there are a number of principles that must necessarily be true of experience in order for judgment to be possible.

Kant's analysis of judgment and the arguments for these principles are contained in his Analytic of Principles.

According to Kant , the sorts of judgments consists of each of the following: some quantity, some quality, some relation, and some modality.

Kant states that any intelligible thought can be expressed in judgments of the above sorts; but, then it follows that any thinkable experience must be understood in these ways, and we are justified in projecting this entire way of thinking outside ourselves, as the inevitable.

References:
Meibos, A., 1998,” Intro to Philosophy: Kant and a priori Synthetic Judgments,” Prof. Arts Notes for PHIL 251 Retrieved 2004
2Evan, J.D.G., 1999, “Kant's Analysis of the Paralogism of Rational Psychology in Critiqueof Pure Reason Edition B, Kantian Review vol. 3 (1999), 99-105. Retrieved 2004 < http://www.qub.ac.uk /phil/courses/Kant>
3 Wallis, S.F, 2004, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), New York: Media & Communication, The European Graduate School. Retreived 2004
4 Ibid.
5 Kant, I., 1787, “The Critique of Pure Reason: Preface To The Second Edition”, Translated By J. M. D.Meiklejohn, Retrieved 2003
6 Ibid.
7 Ibid.
8 Ibid.
9 Ibid.
10……“Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) “Kant's Criticism against the Continental Rationalism and the British Empiricism” Retrieved 2004
11 Ibid.
12Ibid.
13Kant, I., 1787, “The Critique of Pure Reason: Preface To The Second Edition”, Translated By J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Retrieved 2003
14 Ibid.
15 Ibid.
16Ibid.
17….., “Kant” Retrieved 2004
18Ibid.
19Wallis, S.F, 2004, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), New York: Media & Communication, The European Graduate School. Retreived 2004
20Kant in Wallis, S.F, 2004, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), New York: Media & Communication, The European Graduate School. Retreived 2004
21Kant, I., 1787, “The Critique of Pure Reason: Preface To The Second Edition”, Translated By J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Retrieved 2003
22Ibid.
23Ibid.
24Ibid.
25Wallis, S.F, 2004, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), New York: Media & Communication, The European Graduate School. Retreived 2004
26Ibid.
27Ibid.
28Kemerling, G., 2001, “Kant: Synthetic A Priori Judgement.”. Retieved 2003
29Ibid.

24 comments:

  1. Rhomiy Handican
    16709251031
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika B 2016

    Dalam elegi Menggapai "Kant's Phenomena and Noumena", menjelaskan tentang noumena dan fenomena. Noumena adalah sesuatu dalam dirinya sendiri yang tidak akan pernah dapat kita ketahui dan tidak dapat kita jelaskan dengan persepsi panca indera. Sedangkan apa yang menjadi citra atau bayangan dari noumena atau ide (dalam bahasa plato) oleh Kant disebut sebagai fenomena. Atau bisa dikatakan bahwa fenomena adalah hal yang tampak dan noumena adalah hal yang tak tampak. Sebagai contoh yang nyata, misalnya fenomena yang terjadi di dunia ini adalah bencana besar seperti tsunami, maka noumenanya adalah mengapa hal itu bisa terjadi, hanya Allah yang tau. Sebagai manusia mungkin kita hanya menebak-nebak saja. Mungkin karena warganya sudah dzalim, durhaka dengan sang pencipta, atau kah semua itu karena kesrusakan yang diperbuat oleh manusia.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Ummi Santria
    16709251008
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas A – 2016

    Kant menganggap penampakkan hanya sebuah fenomena, bukan noumena. Fenomena berarti penampakkan, sejauh yang bisa ditangkap subjek. Noumena adalah wujud benda pada dirinya sendiri. Fenomena berbeda dengan noumena. Wujud benda pada dirinya sendiri adalah sesuatu yang masih bersifat misteri, dan berada diluar jangkauan manusia. Kemudian, setelah penampakkan objek berada dalam ruang lingkup a priori tersebut, ada hal lain yang harus dipenuhi sebelumnya bisa menghasilkan pengetahuan. Kant menyebutnya dengan istilah kategori sebagai turunan dari putusan-putusan. Kategori yang disebutkan Kant, ada pada posting elegi menggapai Kant’s theory of judgment. Dunia yang kita kenal dan tinggali merupakan dunia fenomena yang diorganisasikan oleh pemikiran kita dengan mensintesiskan banyak data. Jika saya melihat sesuatu, maka sesuatu tersebut ada, karena dapat disentuh dan diorganisasikan dalam pikiran. Hal ini merupakan sebuah fenomena bukan noumena.
    Sumber: Epistemologi Immanuel Kant oleh Abdul Holik

    ReplyDelete
  3. Bismillah
    Ratih Kartika
    16701251005
    PPS PEP B 2016


    Assalamualaikumwarahmatulahiwabarrakatuh
    Kant menyatakan bahwa apapun peristiwa eksternal itu termasuk dalam hubungan spasial sedangkan fenomena muncul atau termasuk dalam hubungan yang temporal. Kant juga menambahkan bahwa berbagai macam pertimbangan mengandung beberapa kuantitas, kualitas, hubungan dan modalitas.



    Terimakasih.
    Wassalamualaikumwarahmatulahiwabarakatuh

    ReplyDelete
  4. Rizqi Nefi Marlufi
    13301241035
    Pendidikan Matematika Internasional 2013

    Bismillah.. today I get a new knowledge about this familiar question by Kant on your post. Thanks for this Mr. Marsigit. I'm absolutely agree with Kant's oppinion. He said that mathematics can be a science ar knowledge or not is based on the condition and how's mathematics are produced.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Rizqi Nefi Marlufi
    13301241035
    Pendidikan Matematika Internasional 2013

    Mathematics will become a knowledge if it's prodused by an intuition. This intuition follow the certain definition of place and time space dimensional. Also, mathematics have many aspect that is used in the real life or just an abstract one that is called pure logic that can't give us an information about that. That's why pure logic isn't included be a science.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Rizqi Nefi Marlufi
    13301241035
    Pendidikan Matematika Internasional 2013

    By this information, I'm personally want to everyone knows that, there's no things or any things in life that can be described like a real things, it can be abstract. We as a human must know that and get the way of thought that we have to be wise for this. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    16701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Kita merupakan subjek dan sekaligus objek kita. kita saat melihat diri kita sebagai suatu
    objek, maka kita adalah objeknya dari subjek kita, dan begitu sebaliknya. Maka seseuatu yang terjadi dalam diri kita dari setiap keragamannya adalah sebuah fenomena yang terjadi.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    16701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Kumpulan, kelompok, banyaknya, keragaman, objek-objek, subjek-subjek, adalah sesuatu yang menjadi objek dalam diri kita, dan itu dapat disebut sebagai fenomena. Substansi dari setiap kumpulan atau kelompok, atau keragaman disebut fenomena. Dimana terdapat secara struktural dan berdimensi.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Achmad Rasyidinnur
    16701251032
    PEP S2 B

    Secara filsafati, objek yang ada atau yang mungkin ada hadir tan tampak melalui indrawi maupun olah pikir. Baik secara a priori maupun a posteriori merupakan. Ketampakan tersebut sebagai suatu interpretasi dari bekerjanya panca indra maupun pikiran, yang membentuk suatu phenomena maupun noumena.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Andina Nurul Wahidah
    16701251019
    PEP-S2 Kelas B

    “Kant claims that pure understanding is not in a position to prescribe through categories any a priori laws other than those which are involved in a nature in general that is in conformity to space and time”. Karena akal murni itu sifatnya terbatas, menghasilkan pengetahuan tanpa dasar inderawi atau independen dari alat pancaindera.

    Jelas bahwa Phenomena dan Noumena merupakan dua hal yang berbeda. Maka, tentulah pengetahuan tidak tidak bisa diketahui lewat pengalaman. Karena pengalaman hanya terjadi di dalam dunia PHENOMENA. Sedangkan ketiga Idea (pencerapan inderawi, akal budi dan tingkat intelek) berada di dunia NOUMENA (dari noumenan “yang dipikirkan”,“yang tidak tampak”). Ketiganya merupakan postulat atau aksioma-aksioma epistemologis yang berada di luar jangkauan pembuktian teoretis-empiris.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Syahrial
    16701251015
    S2 PEP kelas B 2016
    Pada dasarnya fenomena adalah segala sesuatu yang bisa kita persepsi dengan panca indera. Noumena adalah arti hakiki dari benda itu sendiri yang tidak dapat kita jelaskan dengan persepsi panca indera. jadi jelas antara fenomena dan noumena itu berbeda. kebanyakan kita pada saat ini hanya melihat dan mendefinisikan segala sesuatu itu hanya dari fenomena saja padahal seharusnya melalui sudut pandang noumena juga, jadi pemahaman akan hal tersebut benar-benar pemahaman.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Muhamad Arfan Septiawan
    16701251018
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Noumena merupakan wujud benda pada dirinya sendiri, Noumena adalah sesuatu dalam dirinya sendiri yang tidak akan pernah dapat kita ketahui dan tidak dapat kita jelaskan dengan persepsi panca indera. Sedangkan apa yang menjadi citra atau bayangan dari noumena atau ide dalam bahasa plato oleh Kant disebut sebagai fenomena.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Muhamad Arfan Septiawan
    16701251018
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Dunia yang kita kenal dan tinggali merupakan dunia fenomena yang diorganisasikan oleh pemikiran kita dengan mensintesiskan banyak data. Jika kita melihat sesuatu, maka sesuatu tersebut ada, karena dapat disentuh dan diorganisasikan dalam pikiran. Kant juga menyatakan bahwa apapun peristiwa eksternal itu termasuk dalam hubungan spasial sedangkan fenomena muncul atau termasuk dalam hubungan yang temporal.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Erlinda Rahma Dewi
    16709251006
    S2 PPs Pendidikan Matematika A 2016

    Kant menggunakan kata fenomena untuk menunjukkan penampakkan sesuatu dalam kesadaran, sedangkan noumena adalah realitas (das Ding an Sich) yang berada di luar kesadaran pengamat. Menurut Kant, manusia hanya dapat mengenal fenomena-fenomena yang nampak dalam kesadaran, bukan noumena yaitu realitas di luar yang kita kenal.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Yurizka Melia Sari
    16701261003
    PPs PEP A 2016

    Every representation may be understood in 2 different level, a general logical level and a transcendental level. In logical level, one may explicate the power of rule and conduct judgment on the phenomenon. The transcendental level occur once the cognitive judgment elaborate more features than what have been there in the previous level.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Siska Nur Rahmawati
    16701251028
    PEP-B 2016





    Phenomena adalah segala sesuatu yang bisa kita pancainderakan. Sedangkan neomena adalah segala sesuatu yang tidak bisa kita pancainderakan. Kant menyampaikan bahwa proyeknya digunakan untuk menganalisis pengalaman transendetel melalui judgement. Judgement itu sendiri harus terdiri dari kuantitas, kualitas, hubungan, dan modalitas untuk memahami phenomena dan neomena. Dengan Apriori sintetik kita dapat mengetahui kategori-kategori tersebut.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Dita Nur Syarafina
    NIM. 16709251003
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    Fenomena adalah mengaitkan kesadaran manusia akan suatu kejadian yang real sedangkan noumena adalah sesuatu yang terselubung dalam indera dan pikiran sehingga sulit untuk digambarkan. Fenomena itu apa yang bisa dilihat manudia kemudian dapat diinterpretasikan oleh panca inderawi manusia. Suatu fenomena tidak dapat dimunculkan tetapi berjalan sesuai ruang dan waktu, keberadaan manusia hanya untuk mengamati dan menelaah.

    ReplyDelete
  18. MUTIARA KUSUMAWATI
    16701251007
    PEP S2 B

    Dalam elegi diatas Kant berpendapat bahwa kita tidak pernah mampu mengenali hal-hal dalam diri mereka. Setiap kualitas yang termasuk hal yang itu sendiri tidak pernah bisa kita ketahui melalui indera.
    Pada saat yang sama, apa pun yang diberikan dalam waktu bukanlah hal itu sendiri.
    Kant mengklaim bahwa sintesis ketakutan adalah kombinasi dari manifold dalam intuisi empiris. Sintesis ketakutan dari manifold penampilan harus sesuai dengan ruang dan waktu.
    Waktu dan ruang itu sendiri intuisi yang berisi bermacam-macam mereka sendiri. Mereka tidak disajikan dalam apriori dan mereka tidak hanya bentuk intuisi yang masuk akal.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Niswah Qurrota A'yuni
    NIM. 16709251023
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas B 2016

    Assalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.,

    Kant membatasi sains, namun kepastian, keabsolutan dasar sains tetap terbatas, Objek yang tampak merupakan fenomenon (penampakan). Keutuhan objek yang kita tangkap dengan daya struktur mental yang inheren, melalui sensasi, terus ke persepsi lalu ke konsep idea. Contoh: Kita tidak tahu pasti dengan bulan, yang kita tahu hanya idea tentang bulan. Sains tidak mengetahui noumenon (tidak tampaknya suatu) ia hanya tahu fenomenon saja. Dari sini jelas bahwa Kant mampu memisahkan fenomenon dengan noumenon.

    Wassalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.

    ReplyDelete
  20. 16701251016
    PEP B S2

    Transendental dalam proses berfikir tidak terlepas dari inti elegi teruraikan di atas. Hukum sebab akibat yang merupakan ide subjek berdasarkan variasi maka penerapan pemahaman yang interpretasi hasil adalah diluar batas.
    Dalam proses berfikir berarti diri kita sadar memikirkan segala sesuatu, dan bukan merupakan intuisi. Bilamana dikatan intuisi adalah spontaniras diluar batas kesadaran. Jika pikiran tanpa isi adalah kosong, maka intuisi tanpa konsep adalah buta. Intuisi perlu adalah sebuah konsep yang sudah terstruktur melekat, dan dikatakan buta bilamana tiada konsep yang menjadi dasar dari itnuisi yang ada

    ReplyDelete
  21. 16701251016
    PEP B S2

    Kesadaran dalam berfikir ini juga melibatkan batin. Batin adalah perasaan yang datangnya dari hati, jika dengan pemikiran sadar dan muncul intuisi yang terkonsep maka akan timbul pemahaman yang melatih kepekaan hati terhadap yang ada maupun yang mungkin ada. Sintetis pemikiran berdasarkan ruang dan waktu adalah realita empiris yang secara nyata dapat dirasakan oleh indera dengan idealis transendental sekaligus

    ReplyDelete
  22. Niswah Qurrota A'yuni
    NIM. 16709251023
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas B 2016

    Assalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.,

    Kant membatasi sains, namun kepastian, keabsolutan dasar sains tetap terbatas, Objek yang tampak merupakan fenomenon (penampakan). Keutuhan objek yang kita tangkap dengan daya struktur mental yang inheren, melalui sensasi, terus ke persepsi lalu ke konsep idea. Contoh: Kita tidak tahu pasti dengan bulan, yang kita tahu hanya idea tentang bulan. Sains tidak mengetahui noumenon (tidak tampaknya suatu) ia hanya tahu fenomenon saja. Dari sini jelas bahwa Kant mampu memisahkan fenomenon dengan noumenon.

    Wassalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.

    ReplyDelete
  23. MARTIN/RWANDA
    PPS2016PEP B
    Immanuel Kant and his nuomenon, the thing in itself, the ding an sich, versus the phenomenon; the thing as it is perceived. This means that I will only ever know the coat hanger on the back of the door as a phenomenon. I shall never know the coat hanger outside my mind, independent of my perception of it. But if we are born with innateness how can there ever be nuomena?

    ReplyDelete
  24. ULFA LU'LUILMAKNUN
    16709251022
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika 2016 Kelas B

    Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

    Kant menggunakan kata fenomena untuk menunjukkan penampakan sesuatu dalam kesadaran, sedangkan noumena adalah realitas yang berada di luar kesadaran. Menurut Kant, manusia hanya dapat mengenal fenomena-fenomena yang nampak dalam kesadaraan, bukan noumena yaitu yaitu realitas di luar (berupa benda-benda atau atau nampak tetap menjadi objek kesadaran kita) yang kita kenal. Noumena yang selalu tetap menjadi teka-teki yang tidak dapat dikenal karena ia terselubung dari kesadaran kita.

    Wassalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

    ReplyDelete

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