Feb 12, 2013

Constructing Mathematics Activity at Group-Discussion of The 6th Grade Students Of Primary Schools


By Marsigit
Introduction

This research investigated teacher’s role and students’ activities to construct the comprehensive characteristics of numbers pattern in mathematics teaching at the 6th grade students of primary school.

The aim of the study is to explore the role of teacher and the students’ activities in three different cycle of classroom action research.

The activities are interpreted in the context of the students’ efforts to construct the comprehensive characteristics of numbers pattern.

The analysis focuses on the way in which the teacher’s and students’ activities developed in their interactions.

This study bounds territory in which events or processes occurred over a specified period.

The framework of research is teaching action in mathematics teaching of Primary School Grade VI.

Teacher is perceived to be co-worker in doing research and the researcher is not considered to an outside expert.

Thus, the approach of the research is an evaluative-reflective-participatory-critical collaborative enquiry of teaching.

In this research we have developed three cycles of classroom action research (CAR) of different teaching schemas which forms part of common practice in an educational setting.

They aimed to extend children’s learning from cycle 1 to cycle 3 provide the students’ experience to develop their concepts.

The 1st cycle

In the first cycle, the teacher aimed the students to have some competencies to characterize some pattern of numbers producing by doing addition from any kind of two reversible numbers.

The schema of teaching learning process in the 1st cycle was characterized as follows.

Firstly, the teacher introduced the lesson, delivered information, posed the problems and explained what the students should do in the following activities.

Secondly, having had ordering the students to produce additions from any kind of two reversible numbers, the teacher let the students to work in group-discussion; totally there were 8 group-discussions, each consisted of 4 students.

Thirdly, the teacher encouraged the students to present their results of discussions and then strive to conclude the results.

In this cycle the teacher developed worksheets and distributed them before the students work in their group-discussions.

The first step in the analysis was to provide a broad description of the sequence of events during the 1st cycle.

In the 1st cycle it was recorded that there was considerable variation in terms of student’s activities.

The recorded detail brief descriptions of the sessions were used to refer to analyze and to get feedback for preparing the 2nd cycle.

In this session we found that there are some characteristics of students’ efforts to construct their knowledge.

Some students indicated that they activities were routine execution of tasks; however, ideas are developed and they try to construct the concepts.

Interaction in 1st cycle was characterized as an obvious discussion to share understanding among the children.

The students’ activity reflects their deep engagement and interest in the problem solving task There was no indication that the students has a conflict mode to reflects disagreement, however the dominantly role of a certain student begun to be an evident.

It was indicated that with the developed schema of teaching learning processes the teacher did not explicitly force their students to pursue the aims of teaching.

On the other hand, she encouraged students’ activities towards the achievement of goals by taking the benefits from asymmetrical relationship between teacher and their students and among the students themselves in group-discussion.

Some aspects of students’ constructions of their knowledge were invisible and some of them were invisible.

The 2nd cycle

In the 2nd cycle, the teacher aimed the students to have some competencies to characterize some pattern of numbers producing by doing subtraction from any kind of two reversible numbers.

The schema of teaching learning process in the 2nd cycle was characterized as follows.

Firstly, the teacher introduced the lesson, delivered information, posed the problems and explained what the students should do in the following activities.

Secondly, having had ordering the students to produce subtractions from any kind of two reversible numbers, the teacher let the students to work in group-discussion; totally there were 8 group-discussions, each consisted of 4 students.

Thirdly, the teacher encouraged the students to present their results of discussions and then strive to conclude the results.

In this cycle the teacher developed worksheets and distributed them before the students work in their group-discussions.

The analysis of session in the 2nd cycle examines the ways in which teacher’s approach and process of teaching tasks in their small-group activities.

It aims at highlighting students’ activities and situated positions towards knowledge, learning to construct their knowledge. In this session, students are seen as dynamic and contextual in nature, being socially constructed in their interactions small-group discussions.

The students’ activity reflects their deep engagement and interest in the problem solving task.

There were no indications that the students did not focus on the task.

Interaction in 2nd cycle was characterized as an obvious collaborative interaction.

The students were not working individually in the group but developed their ideas together.

The teacher encouraged students’ activities towards the achievement of goals by taking the benefits from asymmetrical relationship between teacher and their students and among the students themselves in group-discussion.

There were several examples of conversations in which some students did not want their talking to be heard by the teacher; on the other word, the teacher needed to give enough time for them to have a discussion in a certain group.

There was no indication that the student has a conflict mode to reflect disagreement.

In this entire session there was no indication of the students to refuse to engage in certain activity.

Some aspects of students’ constructions of their knowledge were visible and some of them were invisible.

The 3rd cycle

In the 3rd cycle, the teacher aimed the students to have some competencies to characterize some pattern of numbers producing by doing multiplication from any kind of two reversible numbers.

The schema of teaching learning process in the 3rd cycle was characterized as follows.

Firstly, the teacher introduced the lesson, delivered information, posed the problems and explained what the students should do in the following activities.

Secondly, having had ordering the students to produce multiplications from any kind of two reversible numbers, the teacher let the students to work in group-discussion; totally there were 8 group-discussions, each consisted of 4 students.

Thirdly, the teacher encouraged the students to present their results of discussions and then strive to conclude the results.

In this cycle the teacher developed worksheets and distributed them before the students work in their group-discussions.

In this session, collaborations in group-discussion reflected balancing in students’ social status and power.

The constructive interaction among the students reflects various different understandings in a rational way by giving judgments and justifications.

This led them to share their understanding of the concepts; it was indicated by their showing for helping and explaining for the purpose of assisting the other to understand the problems.

In this session, there were indications that different group-discussion require different situational teacher intervention.

The students’ activity reflects their deep engagement and interest in the problem solving task

There was no indication that the students have a conflict mode to reflect disagreement.

The teacher encouraged students’ activities towards the achievement of goals by taking the benefits from asymmetrical relationship between teacher and their students and among the students themselves in group-discussion.

The results of observations indicated that, among the students, there were various interests of different activities and different way to construct their activities.

Some of the children have a separate discussion in the same group-discussion; while others initiated a variety of activities; others kept on the task and the left concentrated to prepare the answer orally the teacher’s question.

Most aspects of students’ constructions of their knowledge were visible.

Results

In this study we have been concerned with describing and understanding interactions between teacher and their students and among the students themselves in group-discussions.

The theoretical notions from which our analysis started were activity theory, constructive and the concept of guided participation.

In particular, the students’ activities and the teacher’s role to encourage them are aspects that were highlighted in this study.

Theoretical framework indicated that that the teacher used to emphasize her goal and then directs the students towards it.

In group-discussions setting, the unfolding and development of activities is seen both implicitly and explicitly, also there were indications that there were opportunities for students to develop their understanding.

When activities did not have a clear endpoint, both the teacher was able to influence the course of the activity, in line with her own interests.

The teacher’s role in the activity would be difficult to interpret in the absence of information about the principles group-discussions.

The teacher’s perceptions of her role in supporting children’s learning and their intentions for the activity seemed to be changed from one cycle to the next one; and in the entire her activities this also seemed to be evident; one of indication was that the fact that in the initial interviews the teacher described her intentions in general terms and saw the building activity as a vehicle for general cognitive development was not so clear.

Teacher’s introductions at any cycle may then be seen as related to the general aims which were adaptable to the development of the individual child.

The teacher’s role became one of important factors for their children to develop their cognitive among their constraints in group-discussions.

These important roles were not only evident in her having an awareness of the developmental goals, but also the knowledge of their students, her sensitivities to the student’s interests and motivation.

There were indications that in each cycle the students were not only simply behave as the performer of the activities but also as the active agent in constructing the activities themselves.

Some students were not only remained in their role as the constructor in much of the sessions but also actively adopted other roles while the teacher taking on the role of assistant.

The strike effect of activity in group-discussions was that conversational skill of them became the evident; some of them deliver their own initiations, and the other students seemed to take in such a defensive position on their arguments.

By observing on the transitions from one activity to another, it became evident that an important aspect of the interaction was concerned with activities of negotiation.

Students’ way to achieve the tasks seemed to be different; some did them through quiet persistence and others through explicit way.

References
Brannen, J., 1992, Mixing Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Research, Aldershot: Averbury.
Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M, 1994, Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, London: Sage Publications.
Shuard, H., 'Issues for curriculum development in primary mathematics' in Bourne, J., 1994, Thingking Through Prac¬tice, London: Routledge.
Tangyong, A.F., Gardner, R. (1994) 'The Active Learning Through Professional Support (ALPS)
project in Indonesia' in Beyond Jomtien, (1994) Implementing Primary Education for All, London :The MacMillan Press
Yin, R.K., 1993, Applications of Case Study Research: Applied Social Research Methods

20 comments:

  1. Rhomiy Handican
    16709251031
    PPs Pendidikan Matematika B 2016

    Dalam Elegi ini terdapat penelitian yang dilakukan di kelas 6 dengan membagi dalam 3 classroom action research (CAR) yang diberi perlakuan untuk melihat pengembangan konsep siswa tersebut. saya menilai bahwa memang kegiatan diskusi dalam kelompok dapat meningkatkan perkembangan aktivitas matematika karena ketika diskusi terdapat sumbang sih pendapat, yang pintar akan menjelaskan kepada yang belum, dan kadang kala yang pintar juga akan mengalami kesulitan dan dibantu oleh yang lain, sehingga forum diskusi sangat membantu siswa mengembangkan konsepnya.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Konstantinus Denny Pareira Meke
    NIM. 16709251020
    PPs S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A 2016

    kegiatan siswa dan peran guru untuk Mendorong Mereka adalah aspek yang disorot oleh dalam penelitian ini. Proses pembelajaran bagi siswa tidak dapat digeneralisir. karena siswa memiliki karakter yang berbeda, maka itu membuat cara berpikir setiap siswa diffferent juga. Dan saya pikir metode diskusi adalah salah satu metode yang tepat yang dapat diterapkan. Peran guru akan menjadi faktor penting bagi siswa untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan mereka. Melalui proses pembelajaran seperti itu dengan diamati oleh teman sejawat dan/ atau ahli yang bersesuaian, inovasi pembelajaran yang memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik dalam membangun pengetahuannya akan senantiasa berkembang. Dengan demikian guru mempunyai variasi yang banyak dalam proses pembelajaran.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Erlinda Rahma Dewi
    16709251006
    S2 PPs Pendidikan Matematika A 2016

    Artikel menunjukkan suatu penelitian tindakan kelas yang bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi peran guru dan aktivitas siswa. Kelas diberi perlakuan melalui pembelajaran menggunakan diskusi kelompok dan hasil menunjukkan keefektifannya. Hal tersebut sesuai dengan pernyataan Skemp (1971: 122) bahwa pertukaran ide dalam diskusi yang baik merupakan salah satu manfaat dalam berdiskusi. Mendengar pembicaraan seseorang (atau membaca tulisannya) mungkin memunculkan ide baru yang tidak akan kita ketahui tanpa berkomunikasi. Kemudian pertukaran ide tersebut, hasilnya mungkin menjadi suatu interaksi yang kreatif yang dapat memberikan keterkaitan baru.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Johanis Risambessy
    16701251029
    PPs PEP B 2016

    Artikel di atas menjelaskan tentang penelitian tindakan kelas yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran. Siswa dijadikan subjek penelitian dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran berkelompok, dimana siswa diberikan tindakan diskusi dalam kelompok untuk melihat sejauh mana keaktifan mereka dalam menjelaskan ide-ide dalam pikiran mereka sehingga muncul ide-ide baru yang dapat dijadikan sumber belajar. Dengan demikian, maka guru telah melakukan pembelajaran yang inovatif dalam proses pembelajaran di kelas, sehingga aktivitas siswa pada kelompok diskusi menjadi meningkat.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Nanang Ade Putra Yaman
    16709251025
    PPs PM B 2016

    Assalamualaikum

    Yang teramati dari elegi diatas bahwa penelitian yang dilakukan menunjukan hasil bahwa peran guru yang lebih peka dan peduli terhadap kepentingan dan proses belajar siswa, lebih sebagai negosiator, asisten bagi siswa dalam menjalani serangkaian kegiatannya. Dari penelitian diatas diperoleh informasi bahwa pembelajaran yang demikian dapat membangun perilaku siswa sebagai agen aktif dalam pembelajaran yang tidak hanya mengkonstruk juga memainkan peran lainnya yang lebih dari itu sebagaimana dipaparkan dalam elegi diatas.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Devi Anggriyani
    16701251023
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Di dalam kelas yang seorang guru telah paham bagaimana karakteristik anggota kelasnya, akan memahami dimana letak permasalahan yang ada di kelas. Maksudnya adalah permasalahan pembelajaran. maka guru dapat melaksanakan penelitian dengan tujuan memberikan solusi untuk masalah tersebut. Dan ketika solusi tersebut berhasil maka guru seharusnya tetap menjalankan solusi tersebut sebagai pembelajaran yang efektif sampai waktu yang tidak dapat ditentukan sesuai dengan karakteristik anak.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Ummi Santria
    16709251008
    S2 Pend. Mat Kelas A – 2016

    Upaya peningkatan kualitas tersebut diharapkan dilakukan secara sistematis, realistis, dan rasional, yang disertai dengan meneliti semua aksinya di depan kelas sehingga gurulah yang tahu persis kekurangan-kekurangan dan kelebihannya. Tindakan kelas membuat guru menjadi peka tanggap terhadap dinamika pembelajaran di kelasnya. Dia menjadi reflektif dan kritis terhadap apa yang dia lakukan dan muridnya. Terlihat pada siklus pertama, guru mengarahkan siswa untuk memiliki beberapa kompetensi untuk mengkarakterisasi beberapa pola angka memproduksi dengan melakukan penambahan dari segala bentuk dua nomor reversible. Siklus ke dua dengan melakukan pengurangan. Siklus ketiga dengan melakukan perkalian.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Muhamad Arfan Septiawan
    16701251018
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Peran guru akan menjadi faktor penting bagi siswa untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan mereka. penelitian tindakan kelas yang bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi peran guru dan aktivitas siswa, Kelas diberi perlakuan melalui pembelajaran menggunakan diskusi kelompok dan hasil menunjukkan keefektifannya.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Muhamad Arfan Septiawan
    16701251018
    S2 PEP B 2016

    Seorang guru telah paham bagaimana karakteristik anggota kelasnya, akan memahami dimana letak permasalahan yang ada di kelas, kegiatan diskusi dalam kelompok dapat meningkatkan perkembangan aktivitas matematika karena ketika diskusi terdapat sumbang sih pendapat. dalam diskusi juga dapat membuat siswa lebih berani mengutarakan gagasannya sehingga kepercayaan dirinya pun akan tumbuh dan berdampak positif bagi perkembangan siswa.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Fevi Rahmawati Suwanto
    16709251005
    PMat A / S2

    Dari hasil penelitian tindakan kelas di atas, dapat kita jadikan sebagai bahan pertimbangan untuk memperbaiki pembelajaran. Diskusi grup merupakan salah satu teknik pembelajaran yang bisa menjadi pilihan pada pembelajaran abad keduapuluh satu karena dapat menekan keaktifan siswa untuk mengkonstruksi pengetahuan matematika dalam bentuk aktivitas. Namun dalam penerapannya tentu tidak lepas dari peran guru sebagai faktor penting bagi siswa untuk mengembangkan kognitif di antara kendala mereka dalam kelompok-diskusi.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Kumala Kusuma Putri
    13301241020
    Pendidikan Matematika I 2013

    Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb.
    In my opinion, this is really interesting method. This method will make students become active. Teacher should make classroom become students domination, not teacher domination anymore. Teacher are facilitator for their students. Group-discussion is really alternatif method. I agree that in group-discussions setting, the unfolding and development of activities is seen both implicitly and explicitly, also there were indications that there were opportunities for students to develop their understanding. Group-discussion will make students become critical, active, creative, etc. I think that is enough. Thank you.

    Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

    ReplyDelete
  12. martin/Rwanda
    PPS2016PEP B
    Besides to what is suggested by prof in the elegi, i would like to add some helpful considerations even though they are not far different from those found in the elegi:
    Build on children’s natural interest in mathematics and their intuitive and informal mathematical knowledge.
    Encourage inquiry and exploration to foster problem solving and mathematical reasoning.
    Use both intentionally planned experiences and everyday activities as natural vehicles for developing children’s mathematical knowledge.
    Provide a mathematically rich environment, which includes manipulatives, blocks, puzzles, number books and board games, and incorporate the language of mathematics throughout the day.
    Use literature to introduce mathematical concepts then reinforce with hands-on activities.
    Establish a partnership with parents and other caregivers in supporting children’s learning of mathematics.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Azwar Anwar
    16709251038
    Pendidikan Matematika S2 Kelas B 2016

    Berdasarkan peneilitian diatas bahwasanya, setiap pembelajaran dilaksanakan harus selalu dievaluasi karena ini menjadi kunci utama untuk pembelajaran selanjutnya. Dalam artikel tersebut bagaiamana menggambarkan dan memahami interaksi antara guru dan siswa dan antara siswa itu sendiri dalam kelompok-diskusi. Peran guru sangat penting untuk pembangunan pengetahuan guru itu sendiri, tetapi juga pengetahuan siswanya, dengan begitu guru juga berperan untuk kepentingan belajar dan motivasi siswa.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Fatya Azizah
    16709251039
    Pendidikan Matematika B PPS UNY 2016

    pada artikel diatas dipaparkan mengenai sebuah penelitian yang mengamati tentang peran guru dan aktivitas siswa untuk membentuk karakter pola bilangan pada siswa kelas 6 sd. penelitian ini terdiri dar tiga siklus. hasil dari penelitian ini adalah aktivitas siswa selalu membaik dari siklus sat ke siklus lainnya. berarti peran guru cukup besar bagi aktivitas siswa.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Rospala Hanisah Yukti Sari
    16790251016
    S2 Pendidikan Matematika Kelas A Tahun 2016

    Assalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

    Dalam peningkatan kualitas pendidikan, tentunya memerlukan suatu proses yang panjang. Salah satunya melalui proses penelitian. Jenis penelitian yang dimaksudkan dalam penelitian di atas adalah penelitian tindakan kelas. Di dalam penelitian ini, siswa kelas 6 diarahkan untuk pembelajaran dengan diskusi kelompok. Harapannya, dengan diskusi kelompok ini akan membangun aktivitas matematika. Selain itu, menimbulkan sikap bekerja sama serta dapat menerima perbedaan pendapat dalam diskusi tersebut.

    Dalam jenjang kelas 6 ini, siswa masih memerlukan bimbingan dalam pembentukan kepemimpinan berpikir dan kepribadian. Kepemimpinan berpikir di sini harus lahir dari akidah yang shahih, yaitu akidah islam. Sehingga, dengan akidah islam, siswa mampu memfilter segala hal yang bertentangan dengan larangan Allah. Dengan akidah islam yang dijadikan kepemimpinan berpikir ini pula, maka akan terbentuk kepribadian islam dimana pola pikir (‘aqliyyah) dan pola sikap (nafsiyyah) akan berusaha terikat dengan syariat (aturan) Allah SWT.

    Wassalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Erni Anitasari
    16709251007
    S2 Pend. Matematika Kelas A

    Diskusi kelompok akan membuat siswa mendapat kesempatan dalam menyumbangkan pikiran, interaksi, mengambil kesimpulan dalam memecahkan masalah bersama. Setiap siswa memiliki tanggung jawab dalam proses diskusi sedangkan guru dalam proses diskusi melakukan scaffolding agar saat siswa mengalami kesulitan guru dapat memberikan petunjuk yang mengarahkan semua anggota diskusi untuk memecahkan masalah.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Muh. Faathir Husain M.
    16701251030
    PPs PEP B 2016

    Penelitian tindakan kelas dengan tiga siklus ini salah satu hasilnya adalah bahwa persepsi guru dari perannya dalam mendukung pembelajaran anak-anak dan niat mereka untuk kegiatan yang tampaknya berubah dari satu siklus ke yang berikutnya; dan di seluruh aktivitasnya ini juga tampaknya menjadi jelas; salah satu indikasi adalah bahwa fakta bahwa dalam wawancara awal guru dijelaskan niatnya secara umum dan melihat aktivitas bangunan sebagai kendaraan untuk perkembangan kognitif umum tidak begitu jelas.

    ReplyDelete
  18. RISKA AYU ARDANI
    16709251021
    PMAT KELAS B PPS UNY 2016

    Diskusi adalah aktivitas dari sekelompok siswa, berbicara saling bertukar informasi maupun pendapat tentang sebuah topik atau masalah, dimana setiap anak ingin mencari jawaban/penyelesaian problem dari segala segi dan kemungkinan yang ada. (Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: 1994). Siswa dalam kelas memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda. Kemudian siswa memiliki tingkat pemehaman yang berbeda pula. Salah satu cara untuk membangun kelas yang baik dengan keadaan tersebut, maka melakukan metode diskusi dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif. Tetapi tetap saja tugas guru yang tidak bisa dilewatkan yaitu memonitor dan membimbing proses awal sampai akhir kegiatan diskusi yang berlangsung di dalam kelas,

    ReplyDelete
  19. Nuha Fazlussalam
    13301244023
    s1 pendidikan matematika c 2013

    pentilitan tindakan kelas yang dilakukan di kelas 6 SD, aktivitas diskusi grup, hasilnya ada siswa yang mepertahan kan argumennya, ada yang bisa menerima, ada yang bisa mengerjakan dengan explisit, adsa yeng dengan kegigihan menggunakan cara, inilah terlihat bawah siswa memiliki perbedaaan dala mebangun pengetahunanya. sebagai calon guru, sebisa mungkin saya haru bisa memfasilitasi semua murid yang ada di kelsa dengan perbedaan yang dimilikinya.

    ReplyDelete
  20. RAIZAL REZKY
    16709251029
    S2 P.MAT B 2016

    pembelajaran matematika sangat beragam aktivitas yang terjadi didalamnya salah satunya adalah membuat kelompok-kelompok untuk berdiskusi dimana tujuannya agar para siswa lebih leluasa mengeksplore suatu permasalahan yang terjadi dengan teman sebayanya dan apabila dari hasil diskusi yang dilakukan belum menemukan solusi maka permasalahan tersebut dapat dibawa ke guru. proses ini semata-mata untuk dapat meningkatkan keaktifan siswa dan juga untuk mengarah ke tujuan pendidikan yang sebenarnya yaitu untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran.

    ReplyDelete

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